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Comparison of Carbonate HCl Acidizing Experiments with 3D Simulations
- Priyank Maheshwari (University of Houston) | Vemuri Balakotaiah (University of Houston)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- September 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 402 - 413
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.3.4 Scale, 3.2.4 Acidising
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Acidization of carbonate rocks is a common practice to reduce formationdamage near the wellbore. In this process, an acidic solution is injected todissolve some of the rock, creating conductive channels called wormholes. Thesewormholes facilitate the flow of hydrocarbons to the wellbore. In theliterature, there are several theoretical and experimental studies performed tounderstand this process. Recent work by Maheshwari et.al, 2013 focused on aqualitative comparison of 3D numerical results for slow-reacting acids withexperimental data and presented a sensitivity analysis of the acidizationprocess with respect to various transport, reaction, and rock properties. Thereare very few 3D numerical studies that can predict the experimental resultsquantitatively, such as the optimum injection rate for fast-reacting acids suchas hydrochloric acid (HCl). Therefore, the main objective of this study is toquantitatively predict the experimentally observed acidization curve anddissolution patterns in carbonates with HCl.
We present 3D numerical simulations of carbonate acidization with HCl usinga two-scale continuum (TSC) model. The model describes the reactive transportat Darcy scale and retains all pore-scale physics through structure-propertyrelations. Unlike previous studies, we use a new two-parameter (pore-broadeningand pore-connectivity) structure-property relation to describe the change inpermeability, pore radius, and interfacial area per unit volume with porosity.We predict quantitatively the experimentally observed acidization curve for anHCl/limestone system and show the existence of a critical heterogeneity (thatcorresponds to the minimum amount of acid required to breakthrough). We alsopresent scaling criteria to estimate the wormhole-tip diameter and optimumacid-injection rate for vuggy and nonvuggy carbonates. Finally, we present theflow dynamics of acid inside the wormhole.
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