Laboratory Characterization of Gel Filter Cake and Development of Nonoxidizing Gel Breakers for Zirconium-Crosslinked Fracturing Fluids
- B. Raghava Reddy (Halliburton Energy Services Group)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 662 - 673
- 2013.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.4.10 Microbial Methods, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials
- Regained permeability, Breakers, Metal crosslinked , Filter cake, Fracturing Fluids
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 378 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Borate or Group 4 metal-crosslinked biopolymer fluids constitute the bulk of gelled-fracturing-fluid volumes used in field-fracture stimulation operations to date. Oxidizing chemicals remain the primary gel breakers to break down the filter cake and establish regained formation permeability or fracture conductivity. These breakers presumably oxidize the polymer backbone, causing chain breakdown and facilitating fluid flowback. Safety hazards associated with using bulk quantities are one of the many potential problems associated with the use of oxidizing agents as gel breakers. Proper timing of gel breakdown is of utmost importance with respect to oxidizing gel breakers. Conversely, premature polymer oxidation can cause premature proppant settling. On the other hand, a long delay between the completion of the fracturing operation and activation of the gel breaker could cause the deposition of additional filter cake on fracture faces, which could be difficult to break down. A desirable advancement of designing improved fracturing fluids is to develop nonoxidizing gel breakers that focus on decrosslinking the crosslinked gel structure by reacting with the crosslinking agent, rather than only breaking down the polymer chain. In addition, by insolubilizing such breakers, they can be embedded in the filter cake and, when activated, they can degrade the filter cake completely without leaving any residues. In this paper, synthetic disks of different porosities were used to simulate formation-permeability damage caused by filter cakes formed by Zr-crosslinked, carboxylated guar-based gels, and the results were compared with those measured for uncrosslinked fluids. The filter cakes were formed under different applied-pressure regimes and characterized for their polymer content and filter-cake/filtrate-weight ratios. From flow-rate measurements, it was clear that uncrosslinked base polymer solutions did not cause any permeability damage. Uncrosslinked polymers fluids produced from Zr-crosslinked gels by use of decomplexing, nonoxidizer breakers also did not significantly damage disk permeability compared with the fluids produced from conventional, oxidizer-type breakers. Several ortho-disubstituted aromatic compounds containing polar heteroatoms capable of functioning as potentially strong ligands for zirconium were found to be suitable as decomplexing breakers. Biopolymers containing such functional groups, notably lignosulfonate derivatives, show promise as commercially viable alternatives to oxidizing breakers for metal-crosslinked fracturing fluids.
|File Size||775 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Almond, S. W. 1982. Factors Affecting Gelling Agent Residue Under LowTemperature. Paper SPE 10658 presented at the SPE Formation Damage ControlSymposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 24-25 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10658-MS.
Almond, S. W. and Bland, W. E. 1984. The Effect of Break Mechanism onGelling Agent Residue and Flow Impairment in 20/40 Mesh Sand. Paper SPE 12485presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Bakersfield,California, 13-14 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12485-MS.
Ayoub, J. A., Hutchins, R. D, Van Der Bas, F., et al. 2009. New ResultsImprove Fracture-Cleanup Characterization and Damage Mitigation. SPE Prod& Oper 24 (3): 374-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102326-PA.
Balhoff, M. T. and Miller, M. J. 2005. An Analytical Model for Cleanup ofYield-Stress Fluids in Hydraulic Fractures. SPE J. 10 (1):5-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77596-PA.
Devine, C. S., Tjon Joe Pin, R. M., Rickards, A. R., et al. 1998. PolymericDamage and a Cost Effective Method for Damage Removal from Wells. Paper SPE49249 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, NewOrleans, Louisiana, 27-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49249-MS.
Economides, M. J. and Thomas, R. L. 1989. Well Analysis Before and AfterFracture Stimulation. Paper SPE 20153 presented at SPE Centennial Symposium atNew Mexico Tech, Socorro, New Mexico, 16-19 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20153-MS.
Gall, B. L. and Raible, C. J. 1985. Molecular Size Studies of DegradedFracturing Fluid Polymers. Paper SPE 13566 presented at the SPE Oilfield andGeothermal Chemistry Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, 9-11 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13566-MS.
Hanes, R. E. Jr., Weaver, J. D. and Slaubaugh, B. F. 2006. Methods andCompositions for Reducing the Viscosity of Treatment Fluids. US Patent No.7,082,995.
Hawkins, G. W. 1988. Laboratory Study of Proppant-Pack PermeabilityReduction Caused by Fracturing Fluids Concentrated During Closure. Paper SPE18261 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston,Texas, 2-5 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18261-MS.
Kramer, J., Prud'homme, R. K., Wiltzius, P., et al. 1988. Comparison ofGalactomannan Crosslinking With Organotitanates and Borates. Colloid Polym.Sci. 266 (2): 145-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01452812.
Lord, D. L., Vinod, P. S., Shah, S., et al. 1995. An Investigation of FluidLeakoff Phenomena Employing a High-Pressure Simulator. Paper SPE 30496presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas,22-25 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30496-MS.
Maley, D. and O'Neil, B. 2010. Breaker Enhancer for Crosslinked Borates:Novel Self Generating Acid. Paper SPE 137490 presented at the CanadianUnconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary,Alberta, Canada, 19-21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137490-MS.
Mayerhofer, M. J., Economides, M. J. and Nolte, K. G. 1991. An Experimentaland Fundamental Interpretation of Fracturing Filter-Cake Fluid Loss. Paper SPE22873 presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas,Texas, 6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22873-MS.
Mayerhofer, M. J., Economides, M. J. and Nolte, K. G. 1994. ExperimentalStudy of Fracturing Fluid Loss. J Cdn. Pet. Tech. 33 (8):374-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-08-06.
McGowen, J. M. and Vitthal, S. 1996. Fracturing-Fluid Leakoff Under DynamicConditions Part 1: Development of a Realistic Laboratory Testing Procedure.Paper SPE 36492 presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Denver, Colorado, 6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36492-MS.
Medlin, W. L. and Masse, L. 1989. Fluid-Loss Mechanism for Gels andSuspensions. SPE Prod Eng 4 (4): 385-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15630-PA.
Much, M. G. and Franklin, V. L. 1998. Development and Field Application of aDelayed-Breaker System for Use at High Temperatures. Paper SPE 39780 presentedat the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, 23-26March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39780-MS.
Navarette, R. C., Cowiezel, K. E. and Constien, V. G. 1996. Dynamic FluidLoss in Hydraulic Fracturing Under Realistic Shear Conditions inHigh-Permeability Rocks. SPE Prod & Fac 11 (3):138-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28529-PA.
Norman, L. R., Hollenbeak, K. H. and Harris, P. C. 1989. FractureConductivity Impairment Removal. Paper SPE 19732 presented at SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8-11 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19732-MS.
Norman, L., Vitthal, S. and Terraciana, J. 1995. New or Breaker Technologyfor Fracturing High-Permeability Formations. Paper SPE 30097 presented at SPEEuropean Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 15-16 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30097-MS.
Parks, C. F., Gall, B. L. and Clark, P. E. 1986. Evaluation of Polymers forOilfield Use: Viscosity Development, Filterabilty and Degradation. InWater-Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery, eds. G. A. Stahl and D.N. Schulz, 279-297. New York City, New York: Plenum Press.
Penny, G. S., Conway, M. W. and Lee, W. 1985. Control and Modeling of FluidLeakoff During Hydraulic Fracturing. J. Pet Tech 37 (6):1071-1081. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12486-PA.
Prud'homme, R. K. and Wang, J. K. 1993. Filter-Cake Formation of FracturingFluids. Paper SPE 25207 presented at the SPE International Symposium on OilField Chemistry, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-5 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25207-MS.
Przepasniak, A. M. and Clark, P. E. 1998. Polymer Loss in Filter Cakes.Paper SPE 39461 presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Conference,Lafayette, Louisiana, 18-19 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39461-MS.
Sarwar, M. U., Cawiezel, K. E. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Gel DegradationStudies of Oxidative and Enzyme Breakers to Optimize Breaker Type andConcentration for Effective Break Profiles at Low and Medium TemperatureRanges. Paper SPE 140520 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140520-MS.
Small, J., Wallace, M. and Howe, S. V. 1991. Improving FractureConductivities with a Delayed Breaker System: A Case History. Paper SPE 21497presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Houston, Texas, 22-24 January.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21497-MS.
Thompson, J. E. and Devine, C. S. 1995. Fracturing Fluid Interactions WithFormation Minerals and Their Subsequent Effect on Formation Permeability. PaperSPE 29500 presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City,Oklahoma, 2-4 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29500-MS.
Tjon Joe Pin, R. M. and Devine, C. S. 1997. Modeling Formation Damage BasedUpon Residual Polymeric Fragment Size Distribution. Paper SPE 39209 presentedat the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, 22-24 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39209-MS.
Vitthal, S. and McGowen, J. M. 1996. Fracturing Fluid Leakoff Under DynamicConditions Part 2: Effect of Shear Rate, Permeability, and Pressure. Paper SPE36493 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36493-MS.
Volk, L. J., Gall, B. L., Raible, C. J., et al. 1983. A Method forEvaluation of Formation Damage Due to Fracturing Fluids. Paper SPE 11638presented at the SPE/DOE Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs Symposium, Denver,Colorado, 14-16 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11638-MS.
Xu, B., Hill, A. D., Zhu, D., et al. 2011. Experimental Evaluation of GuarFracture Fluid Filter Cake Behavior. Paper SPE 140686 presented at the SPEHydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140686-MS.
Zeilinger, S. C., Mayerhofer, M. J. and Economides, M. J. 1991. A Comparisonof the Fluid-Loss Properties of Borate-Zirconate-Crosslinked and NoncrosslinkedFracturing Fluids. Paper SPE 23435 presented at the SPE Eastern RegionalMeeting, Lexington, Kentucky, 22-25 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23435-MS.