Produced-Water-Chemistry History Matching Using a 1D Reactive Injector/Producer Reservoir Model
- Oscar Vazquez (Heriot-Watt University) | Ross A. McCartney (Oilfield Water Services Limited) | Eric Mackay (Heriot-Watt University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- September 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 369 - 375
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.6.5 Tracers, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.8 History Matching
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- 380 since 2007
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Understanding connectivity between injection and production wells isvaluable information for reservoir management. Typically, connectivity might beevaluated by use of downhole-pressure information or by injecting tracers intothe reservoir. A less-established but inexpensive technique is to history matchproduced-water compositions. For example, previous studies with this methodhave identified barriers to flow in reservoirs. Information on connectivity isalso beneficial to scale management, particularly that in which sulfate(SO4) -rich seawater is injected into reservoirs containingformation water rich in divalent cations [i.e., barium (Ba), strontium (Sr),calcium (Ca)], because, in these cases, the sulphate mineral-scaling conditionsin production wells are a function of the physical properties of the flow pathsconnecting the injection and production wells (Wright et al. 2008).
In this study, we have considered this latter relationship from a reverseperspective and explored the potential of history matching produced-watercompositions to understand the physical properties of flow paths connectinginjection and production wells for reservoirs under seawater flood. We haveperformed this history matching with a 1D reactive transport model connectingan injector and a producer through a number of noncommunicating layerscharacterized by permeability, porosity, and height (completion interval)(Vazquez et al. 2009). The model simulates the injection of seawater, themixing of the seawater with reservoir-formation brine, and the subsequentdeposition of sulfate scales (barium and calcium sulphate among others) in thereservoir under equilibrium and kinetic conditions. The results of interest arethe predicted produced-water compositions over time from the model, similar tothe approach presented by McCartney et al. (2012), Tjomsland et al. (2010), andWright et al. (2008).
The model has been used to demonstrate the way in which produced-watercompositions vary as the physical properties of the layers between the wellsare modified, and, particularly, the way in which they vary in the presence ofthief zones. Finally, a stochastic method was applied--in particular aparticle-swarm-optimization (PSO) algorithm--for the automatic history matchingof actual produced-water compositions from individual wells in fields underseawater flooding. The results are promising and show that this technique canprovide valuable information about the nature of interwell connectivity.
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