Constraints on Simultaneous Growth of Hydraulic Fractures from Multiple Perforation Clusters in Horizontal Wells
- Andrew Bunger (University of Pittsburgh) | Robert G. Jeffrey (CSIRO) | Xi Zhang (CSIRO)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 608 - 620
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3.2.3 Hydraulic fracturing design, implementation and optimization
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 846 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
In spite of the fact that multistage hydraulic fracturing from horizontalwells is the fastest growing and arguably the most economically importantapplication for well stimulation, numerous fundamental questions remain thatare relevant to determining how long to make each isolated interval and howmany perforation clusters to place within each interval. This paper providesnew insights into this problem by predicting how many hydraulic fractures canbe expected to grow simultaneously from multiple perforation clusterspressurized by a single injection stage. These predictions are obtained from acoupled mathematical model that includes the contributions of fluid flow, rockbreakage, and pressure loss through the perforations to the total powerrequirements for the growth of arrays of multiple hydraulic fractures. Fortypical shale gas stimulations, radial hydraulic fractures are predicted togrow from all perforation clusters, with progressive reduction in the number ofhydraulic fractures, thereby maintaining a ratio of the radius to the spacingthat is a small amount less than unity. If the hydraulic fractures arecontained to a height H, then multiple Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) -likehydraulic fractures are predicted to continue growing, with the length of eachhydraulic fracture increasing throughout the injection and with a spacing thatis approximately 1.5 H when perforation losses are strong andapproximately 2.5 H when perforation losses are negligible. Thesegeometric predictions are consistent with previously published observationsbased on microseismicity associated with stimulations in the Barnett Shale.
|File Size||585 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Abass, H., Soliman, M., Al-Tahini, Aet al. 2009. Oriented Fracturing: A NewTechnique to Hydraulically Fracture an Openhole Horizontal Well. Paper SPE124483 presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference and Exhibition, NewOrleans, Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124483-MS.
Adachi, J. 2001. Fluid-Driven Fracture in Permeable Rock. PhD thesis,University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Adachi, J.I. and Peirce, A.P. 2008. Asymptotic Analysis of an ElasticityEquation for a Finger-Like Hydraulic Fracture. J. Elasticity 90: 43-69.
Bai, M., Green, S., and Suarez-Rivera, R. 2005. Effect of Leakoff Variationon Fracturing Efficiency for Tight Shale Gas Reservoirs. In Proceedings ofthe 40th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska. Paper No.05-697.
Bunger A.P. In Press. Analysis of the Power Input Needed to PropagateMultiple Hydraulic Fractures. International J. Solids and Structures. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.01.004.
Bunger, A.P., Lakirouhani, A., and Detournay, E. 2010. Modelling the Effectof Injection System Compressibility and Viscous Fluid Flow on HydraulicFracture Breakdown Pressure. In Proceedings of the 5th InternationalSymposium on In-situ Rock Stress, Beijing, P.R. China.
Bunger, A.P., Menand, T., Cruden, A.R. et al. 2012. Analytical Predictionsfor a Natural Spacing Within Dyke Swarms. CSIRO Report EP128750. For submissionto Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.
Carter, E. 1957. Optimum Fluid Characteristics for Fracture Extension. InDrilling and Production Practices, eds. G. Howard and C. Fast, pages261-270. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Petroleum Institute.
Crump, J.B. and Conway, M.W. 1988. Effects of Perforation-Entry Friction onBottomhole Treating Analysis. J. Pet Tech 40 (8):1041-1048. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15474-PA.
Detournay, E. 2004. Propagation Regimes of Fluid-Driven Fractures inImpermeable Rocks. Int. J. Geomechanics 4 (1): 1-11.
Economides, M. and Nolte, K., eds. 2000. Reservoir Stimulation, thirdedition, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Fisher, M.K., Heinze, J.R., Harris, C.D. et al. 2004. Optimizing HorizontalCompletion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping.Paper SPE 90051 presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference andExhibition, Houston, Texas, 26-29 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90051-MS.
Griffith, A.A. 1921. The Phenomenon of Rupture and Flow in Solids. Phil.Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 221: 163-198.
Howard, C.G. and Fast, C.R., eds. 1970. Hydraulic Fracturing,Monograph Vol. 2, New York: Henry L. Doherty Fund. SPE.
Jeffrey, R. and Bunger, A.P. 2009. A Detailed Comparison of Experimental andNumerical Data on Hydraulic Fracture Height Growth Through Stress Contrasts.SPE J. 14 (3): 413-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106030-PA.
Ketter, A.A., Heinze, J.R., Daniels, J.L. et al. 2008. A Field Study inOptimizing Completion Strategies for Fracture Initiation in Barnett ShaleHorizontal Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (3): 373-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/103232-PA.
Khristianovic, S. and Zheltov, Y. 1955. Formation of Vertical Fractures byMeans of Highly Viscous Fluids. In Proceedings of the 4th World PetroleumCongress, pages 579-586. Carlo Colombo: Rome.
Kovalyshen, Y. and Detournay, E. 2010. A Reexamination of the Classical PKNModel of Hydraulic Fracture. Transp. Porous Med. 81:317-339.
Lecampion, B. and Detournay, E. 2007. An Implicit Algorithm for thePropagation of a Plane Strain Hydraulic Fracture With Fluid Lag. ComputerMeth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 196 (49-52): 4863-4880.
Madyarova, M. 2003. Fluid-Driven Penny-Shaped Fracture in Elastic Rock.Master's thesis, University of Minnestoa, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Modeland, N., Buller, D., and Chong, K.K. 2011. Stimulation's Influence onProduction in the Haynesville Shale: A Playwide Examination ofFracture-Treatment Variables That Show Effect on Production. Paper SPE 148940presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference. Calgary,Alberta, Canada, 15-17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148940-MS.
Nagel, N., Gil, I., Sanchez-Nagel, M. et al. 2011. Simulating HydraulicFracturing in Real Fractured Rocks—Overcoming the Limits of Pseudo3D Models.Paper SPE 140480 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140480-MS.
Nolte, K.G. and Smith, M.B. 1981. Interpretation of Fracturing Pressures.J. Pet Tech 33 (9): 1767-1775. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8297-PA.
Nordgren, R. 1972. Propagation of Vertical Hydraulic Fractures. SPE J. 12 (4): 306-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3009-PA.
Olson, J.E. and Dahi-Taleghani, A. 2009. Modeling Simultaneous Growth ofMultiple Hydraulic Fractures and Their Interaction With Natural Fractures.Paper SPE 119739 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 19-21 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119739-MS.
Perkins, T. and Kern, L. 1961. Widths of Hydraulic Fractures. J. PetTech 13 (9): 937-949. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89-PA.
Reynolds, M., Thomson, S., Peyman, F. et al. 2012. A Direct Comparison ofHydraulic Fracture Geometry and Well Performance Between Cemented Liner andOpenhole Packer Completed Horizontal Wells in a Tight Gas Reservoir. Paper SPE152185 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference,The Woodlands, Texas, 6-8 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152185-MS.
Romer, M.C., Phi, M.V., Barber, R.C. et al. 2007. Well-StimulationTechnology Progression in Horizontal Frontier Wells, Tip Top / Hogsback Field,Wyoming. Paper SPE 110037 presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference andExhibition, Anaheim, California, 11-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110037-MS.
Romero, J., Mack, M.G., and Elbel, J.L. 1995. Theoretical Model andNumerical Investigation of Near-Wellbore Effects in Hydraulic Fracturing. PaperSPE 30506 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Dallas, Texas, 22-25 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30506-MS.
Savitski, A. and Detournay, E. 2002. Propagation of a Penny-ShapedFluid-Driven Fracture in an Impermeable Rock: Asymptotic Solutions. Int. J.Solids Struct. 39: 6311-6337.
Shlyapobersky, J. 1985. Energy Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing. In 26thU.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. Rapid City.
Sierra, R., Tran, M.H., Abousleiman, Y.N. et al. 2010. Woodford ShaleMechanical Properties and the Impacts of Lithofacies. In Proceedings ofthe 44th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah.ARMA 10-461.
Smith, M. and Shlyapobersky, J. 2000. Basics of hydraulic fracturing. InReservoir Stimulation, third edition, eds. M. Economides and K. Nolte,Chap. 5. Chichester UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Sneddon, I.N. 1946. The Distribution of Stress in the Neighborhood of aCrack in an Elastic Solid. Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 187(1009): 229-260.
Song, B., Economides, M.J., and Ehlig-Economides, C. 2011. Design ofMultiple Transverse Fracture Horizontal Wells in Shale Gas Reservoirs. PaperSPE 140555 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference andExhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140555-MS.
Stegent, N.A., Wagner, A.L., Mullen, J. et al. 2010. Engineering aSuccessful Fracture-Stimulation Treatment in the Eagle Ford Shale. Paper SPE136183 presented at the SPE Tight Gas Completions Conference, San Antonio,Texas, 2-3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136183-MS.
Warpinski, N.R., Mayerhover, M.J., Vincent, M.C. et al. 2008. StimulatingUnconventional Reservoirs: Maximizing Network Growth While Optimizing FractureConductivity. Paper SPE 114173 presented at the SPE Unconventional ResourcesConference, Keystone, Colorado, 10-12 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114173-MS.
Wei, Y. and Economides, M.J. 2005. Transverse Hydraulic Fractures From aHorizontal Well. Paper SPE 94671 presented at the SPE Annual TechnologyConference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94671-MS.
Weng, X. 1993. Fracture Initiation and Propagation From Deviated Wellbores.Paper SPE 26597 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Houston, Texas, 3-6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26597-MS.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C. et al. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic FractureNetwork Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. SPE Prod &Oper 26 (4): 368-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140253-PA.
Wolhart, S., Odegard, C., Warpinski, N. et al. 2005. Microseismic FractureMapping Optimizes Development of Low-Permeability Sands of the Williams ForkFormation in the Piceance Basin. Paper SPE 95637 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnology Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95637-MS.
Zhang, X., Jeffrey, R.G., Bunger, A.P. et al. 2011. Initiation and Growth ofa Hydraulic Fracture From a Circular Wellbore. Int. J. Rock Mech. MiningSci. 48 (6): 984-995.
Zhang, X., Jeffrey, R.G., and Thiercelin, M. 2009. Mechanics of Fluid-DrivenFracture Growth in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs With Simple NetworkGeometries. J. Geophys. Res. 114: B08416.