- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Development of an Analytical Injectivity Model for Non-Newtonian Polymer Solutions
- Zhitao Li (University of Texas at Austin) | Mojdeh Delshad (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 381 - 389
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6.5 Reservoir Simulation, 6.4 Primary and Enhanced Recovery Processes, 6.4.6 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 6 Reservoir Description and Dynamics
- UTCHEM, Chemical flood, Non-Newtonian fluids, Polymer injectivity, Reservoir simulation
- 26 in the last 30 days
- 564 since 2007
- Show more detail
In applications of polymer flood for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), polymer injectivity is of great concern because project economics is sensitive to injection rates. In-situ non-Newtonian polymer rheology is the most crucial factor that affects polymer injectivity. There are several ongoing polymer-injection field tests in which the field injectivities differ significantly from the simulation forecasts. We have developed an analytical model to more accurately calculate and predict polymer injectivity during the field projects to help with optimum injection strategies. Significant viscosity variations during polymer flood occur in the vicinities of wellbores where velocities are high. As the size of a wellblock increases, velocity smears, and thus polymer injectivity is erroneously calculated. In the University of Texas Chemical Flooding Simulator (UTCHEM), the solution was to use an effective radius to capture the "grid effect," which is empirical and impractical for large-scale field simulations with several hundred wells. Another approach is to use local grid refinement near wells, but this adds to the computational cost and limits the size of the problem. An attractive alternative to previous approaches is to extend the Peaceman well model Peaceman 1983) to non-Newtonian polymer solutions. The polymer rheological model and its implementation in UTCHEM were validated by simulating single-phase polymer injectivity in coreflood experiments. On the basis of the Peaceman well model and UTCHEM polymer rheological models covering both shear-thinning and shear-thickening polymers, an analytical polymer injectivity model was developed. The analytical model was validated by comparing results of different gridblock sizes and radial numerical simulation. We also tested a field case by comparing results of a fine-grid simulation and its up-scaled coarse-grid model. A pilot-scale polymer flood was simulated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed analytical model. The model successfully captured polymer injectivity in all of these cases with no need to introduce empirical parameters.
Abou-Kassem, J.H. and Aziz, K. 1985. Analytical Well Models for Reservoir Simulation. SPE J. 25 (4): 573–579. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11719-PA.
Babu, D.K. and Odeh, A.S. 1989. Productivity of a Horizontal Well. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (4): 417–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18298-PA.
Bird, R.B., Steward, W.E. and Lightfoot, E.N. 1960. Transport Phenomena. New York City, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bondor, P.L., Hirasaki, G.J. and Tham, M.J. 1972. Mathematical Simulation of Polymer Flooding in Complex Reservoirs. SPE J. 12 (5): 369–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3524-PA.
Buell, R.S., Kazeml, H. and Poettmann, F.H. 1990. Analyzing Injectivity of Polymer Solutions with the Hall Plot. SPE Res Eng 5 (1): 41–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16963-PA.
Cannella, W.J., Huh, C. and Seright, R.S. 1988. Prediction of Xanthan Rheology in Porous Media. Paper SPE 18089 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 2–5 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18089-MS.
Carreau, P.J. 1968. Rheological Equations from Molecular Network Theories. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin–Madison (1968).
Clemens, T., Deckers, M., Kornberger, M., et al. 2013. Polymer Solution Injection – Near Wellbore Dynamics and Displacement Efficiency, Pilot Test Results, Matzen Field, Austria. Paper SPE 164904 presented at the 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition Incorporating SPE EUROPEC, London, UK, 10–13 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164904-MS.
Delshad, M., Pope, G.A. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2000. Volume II: Technical Documentation for UTCHEM-9.0: A Three-Dimensional Chemical Flood Simulator. Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Delshad, M., Kim, D.H., Magbagbeola, O.A., et al. 2008. Mechanistic Interpretation and Utilization of Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymer Solutions for Improved Polymer-Flood Efficiency. Paper SPE 113620 presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20–23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113620-MS.
Flory, P.J. 1953. Principles of Polymer Chemistry. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
Haas, R. and Durst, F. 1981. Viscoelastic Flow of Dilute Polymer Solutions in Regularly Packed Beds. Rheol. Acta 21 (4–5): 566–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01534349.
Han, X.-Q., Wang, W.-Y. and Xu, Y. 1995. The Viscoelastic Behavior of HPAM Solutions in Porous Media and Its Effects on Displacement Efficiency. Paper SPE 30013 presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, China, 14–17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30013-MS.
Heemskerk, J., Janssen-van Rosmalen, R., Holtslag, R.J., et al. 1984. Quantification of Viscoelastic Effects of Polyacrylamide Solutions. Paper SPE 12652 presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 15–18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12652-MS.
Hirasaki, G.J. and Pope, G.A. 1974. Analysis of Factors Infuencing Mobility and Adsorption in the Flow of Polymers Solution through Porous Media. SPE J. 14 (4): 337–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4026-PA.
Kaminsky, R.D., Wattenbarger, R.C., Szafranski, R.C., et al. 2007. Guidelines for Polymer Flooding Evaluation and Development. Oral presentation of paper IPTC 11200 given at IPTC 2007: International Petroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, UAE, 4–6 December.
Karpinski, L., Marcondes, F., Delshad, M., et al. 2009. An Element Based Conservative Approach Using Unstructured Grids in Conjunction with a Chemical Flooding Compositional Reservoir Simulator. Oral presentation given at the 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 15–20 November.
Khodaverdian, M., Sorop, T., Postif, S., et al. 2009. Polymer Flooding in Unconsolidated Sand Formations: Fracturing and Geomechanical Considerations. Paper SPE 121840 presented at the EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 8–11 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121840-MS.
Manichand, R.N., Moe Soe Let, K.P., Gil, L., et al. 2013. Effective Propagation of HPAM Solutions through the Tambaredjo Reservoir during a Polymer Flood. Paper SPE 164121 presented at the 2013 SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 8–10 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164121-MS.
Masuda, Y., Tang, K., Miyazawa, M., et al. 1992. 1D Simulation of Polymer Flooding Including the Viscoelastic Effect of Polymer Solution. SPE Res Eng 7 (2): 247–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19499-PA.
Meter, D.M. and Bird, R.B. 1964. Tube Flow of Non-Newtonian Polymer Solutions: Part I. Laminar Flow and Rheological Models. AIChE J. 10 (6): 878–881. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690100619.
Morel, D., Vert, M., Jouenne, S., et al. 2012. First Polymer Injection in Deep Offshore Field Angola: Recent Advances in the Dalia/Camelia Field Case. SPE 135735, SPE J., 1 (2): 43–52, 2012.
Peaceman, D.W. 1983. Interpretation of Well-Block Pressures in Numerical Reservoir Simulation with Nonsquare Grid Blocks and Anisotropic Permeability. SPE J. 23 (3): 531–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10528-PA.
Ranjbar, M., Rupp, J., Pusch, G., et al. 1992. Quantification and Optimization of Viscoelastic Effects of Polymer Solutions for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 25154 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24154-MS.
Schlumberger ECLIPSE Reservoir Simulation Software, Version 2010.2, Technical Description. Houston, Texas: Schlumberger Limited.
Seright, R.S., Seheult, M. and Talashek, T. 2009. Injectivity Characteristics for EOR Polymers. SPE J. 12 (5): 783–792. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115142-PA.
Sharma, A., Delshad, M., Huh, C., et al. 2011. A Practical Method to Calculate Polymer Viscosity Accurately in Numerical Reservoir Simulators. Paper SPE 147239 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October–2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147239-MS.
Sorbie, K.S. 1991. Polymer-Improved Oil Recovery. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Inc.
Sorbie, K.S., Roberts, L.J. and Foulser, R.W.S. 1982. Polymer Flooding for Highly Stratified Brent Sands in the North Sea. Oral presentation given at the 2nd European Symposium on EOR, Paris, France, 8–10 November.
Stavland, A., Jonsbraten, H.C., Lohne, A., et al. 2010. Polymer Floodinig – Flow Properties in Porous Media versus Rheological Parameters. Paper SPE 131103 presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 14–17 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131103-MS.
Teklu, T.W., Alameri, W., Graves, R.M., et al. 2012. Geomechanics Considerations in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 162701 presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 October–1 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162701-MS.
Todd, M.R. and Chase, C.A. 1979. A Numerical Simulator for Predicting Chemical Flood Performance. Paper SPE 7689 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 31 January–2 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7689-MS.
van den Hoek, P.J., Mahani, H., Sorop, T.G., et al. 2012. Application of Injection Fall-Off Analysis in Polymer Flooding. Paper SPE 154376 presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154376-MS.
Wreath, D., Pope, G.A. and Sepehrnoori, K. 1990. Dependence of Polymer Apparent Viscosity on the Permeable Media and Flow Conditions. In Situ 14 (3): 263–284.
Wassmuth, F.R., Green, K. and Hodgins, L. 2007. Polymer Flood Technology for Heavy Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 2007-182 presented at Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12–14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2007-182.
Yerramilli, S.S., Zitha, P.L.J. and Yerramilli, R.C. 2013. Novel Insight into Polymer Injectivity for Polymer Flooding. Paper SPE 165195 presented at the 10th SPE International Conference and Exhibition on European Formation Damage, Noordwijk, the Netherlands, 5–7 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165195-MS.
Yuan, C. 2012. Commercial Scale Simulations of Surfactant/Polymer Flooding. PhD dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (2012).
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.