Unconstrained Voronoi Grids for Densely Spaced Complex Wells in Full-Field Reservoir Simulation
- Larry S.-K. Fung (Saudi Aramco) | Xiang Y. Ding (Saudi Aramco) | Ali H. Dogru (Saudi Aramco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 803 - 815
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.6.8 Well Performance Monitoring, Inflow Performance, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation
- PEBI Voronoi grid, parallel reservoir simulation, Unstructured Gridding, Flow near Complex Wells
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 423 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Accurate representation of near-well flow is an important subject matter in reservoir simulation. In today’s field-scale reservoir simulation, cell-centered structured grids remain the predominant practice. Typically, well-inflow performance of the perforated cells is connected to the finite-volume solution by means of well indices that may not be well-defined when the wellbore intersects the finite-volume cells in a complex trajectory. Fine gridding is also required to resolve the flow dynamics in the near-well regions. Strong grid-orientation sensitivities can also contribute to the numerical errors and may require significant local grid refinement to alleviate. There are ongoing research-and-development (R&D) efforts on applying unstructured grids to better represent the near-well flow in reservoir simulation, but their applications are mainly in single-well study or sector modeling with a few wells. Some of the reasons cited for this include (1) the lack of an effective, easy-to-use full-field complex well-gridding tool; (2) the lack of supporting unstructured workflow for full-cycle reservoir simulation; (3) the cost of unstructured-grid simulation; and (4) the availability of post-analysis and visualization tools for unstructured-grid simulation. The paper describes a novel method to automatically generate unstructured grids that conform to complex wellpaths in field-scale simulation. The method uses a multilevel approach to place cells optimally within the solution domain on the basis of the "regions of interests." The wellbore geometry is honored by means of the construction of a near-well grid that is complemented with multilevel quad-tree (Fig. 1) refinements to achieve the desired resolution in grid transition zones. The method includes an algorithm to remove small cells and pinching cells on the basis of local grid quality measures and cell prioritization to honor wellpaths. The gridding process forms a component of a production-level reservoir-simulation workflow. The use of unstructured grid results in computational savings by placing cells where the resolution is needed. An in-house massively parallel simulator is used to run the unstructured-grid models. Simulation examples for full-field applications with hundreds of complex wells by use of both structured grids and unstructured grids will be used to compare results, accuracy, and performance of the gridding method for reservoir simulation.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Azarkish, A., Khaghani, E. and Rezaeidoust, A. 2006. Interpretation of Water Injection/Falloff Test. Paper SPE 101749 presented at the International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, China, 5–7 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101749-MS.
Deimbacher, F.X., Komlosi, F. and Heinemann, Z.E. 1995. 1995. Fundamental Concept and Potential Applications of the Windowing Technique in Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 29851 presented at the the Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 11–14 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29851-MS.
Dogru, A. H., Fung, L. S. K., Middya, U., et al. 2009. A Next-Generation Parallel Reservoir Simulator for Giant Reservoirs. Paper SPE 119272 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 2–4 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119272-MS.
Forsyth, P.A. and Sammon, P.H. 1986. Local Mesh Refinement and Modeling of Faults and Pinchouts. SPE Form Eval 1 (3): 275–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13524-PA.
Fung, L. S. K. 2013. Giga-Cell Linear Solver Method and Apparatus for Massively Parallel Reservoir Simulation. US Patent Application No. 13/765,361.
Fung, L. S. K. 2012. Scalable Simulation of Multiphase Flow in a Fractured Subterranean Reservoir as Multiple Interacting Continua. US Patent Application No. US 2012/0179436.
Fung, L. S. K. and Al-Shaalan, T. M. 2009. Solution Method and Apparatus for Large-Scale Simulation System Involving Layered Heterogeneous Formations. US Patent No. 7,596,480.
Fung, L. S. K. and Ding, S. Y. 2013. Systems, Methods, and Computer-Readable Media for Modeling Complex Wellbores in Field-Scale Reservoir Simulation. US Patent Application No. 61/766,056/712,444.
Fung, L. S. K. and Dogru, A. H. 2008. Distributed Unstructured Grid Infrastructure for Complex Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 113906 presented at the Europec/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Rome, Italy, 9–12 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113906-MS.
Fung, L.S.K. and Dogru, A.H. 2000. Efficient Multilevel Method for Local Grid Refinement for Massively Parallel Reservoir Simulation. Oral presentation given at the 7th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, Lago Maggiore, Italy, 5–8 September.
Fung, L. S. K. and Dogru, A. H. 2008. Parallel Unstructured Solver Methods for Simulation of Complex Giant Reservoirs. SPE J. 13 (4): 440–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106237-PA.
Fung, L. S. K. and Mezghani, M. 2013a. Machine, Computer Program Product and Method to Generate Unstructured Grids and Carry Out Parallel Reservoir Simulation. US Patent No. 8,386,227.
Fung, L. S. K. and Mezghani, M. 2013b. Machine, Computer Program Product and Method to Carry Out Parallel Reservoir Simulation. US Patent No. 8,433,551.
Fung, L.S.K., Buchanan, W.L. and Sharma R. 1994. Hybrid-CVFE Method for Flexible Grid Reservoir Simulation. SPE Res Eng 9 (3): 188–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25266-PA.
Fung, L. S. K., Ding, X. Y. and Dogru, A. H. 2013. Using Unstructured Grids for Modeling Densely-Spaced Complex Wells in Field-Scale Reservoir Simulation. Paper IPTC 17062 presented at the 6th International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, China, 26–28 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/17062-MS.
Fung, L.S.K., Hiebert, A.D. and Nghiem, L.X. 1992. Reservoir Simulation with a Control-Volume Finite-Element Method. SPE Res Eng 7 (3): 349–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21224-PA.
Fung, L. S. K., Middya, U. and Dogru, A. H. 2011. Numerical Simulation of Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs with the M_1 Bimodal Pore System. Paper SPE 142296 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 21–23 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142296-MS.
Heinemann, Z.E. 1994. Interactive Generation of Irregular Simulation Grids and Its Practical Application. Paper SPE 66371 presented at the University of Tulsa Centennial Petroleum Engineering Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 29–31 August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27998-MS.
Heinemann, Z.E., Brand, C.W., Munka, M., et al. 1991. Modeling Reservoir Geometry with Irregular Grid. SPE Res Eng 6 (2): 225–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18412-PA.
Heinemann, Z.E., Gerken, G. and Hantlemann, G. 1983. Using Local Grid Refinement in Multiple-Application Reservoir Simulator. Paper SPE 12255 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, San Francisco, California, 15–18 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12255-MS.
Katzmayr, M. and Ganzer, L. 2009. An Iterative Algorithm for Generating Constrained Voronoi Grids. Paper SPE 118942 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 2–4 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/118942-MS.
Mahanl, H. and Evazi, M. 2010. Vorticity-Based Perpendicular-Bisector Grids for Improved Upscaling of Two-Phase Flow. SPE J. 15 (4): 995–1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113703-PA.
Merland, R., Lévy, B., Caumon, G., et al. 2011. Building Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations for Flow Simulation In Reservoir Using Flow Information. Paper SPE 141018 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 21–23 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141018-MS.
Mlacnik, M.J. and Heinemann, Z.E. 2001. Using Well Windows in Full Field Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 66371 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, Texas, 11–14 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/66371-MS.
Mlacnik, M.J., Durlosky, L.J. and Heinemann Z.E. 2006. Sequentially Adapted Flow-Based PEBI Grids for Reservoir Simulation. SPE J. 11 (3): 317–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90009-PA.
Mlacnik, M.J., Harrer, A. and Heinemann, Z.E. 2001. State-of-the-Art in the Windowing Technique. Paper SPE 2001-003 presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference 2001, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12–14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2001-003.
MPI: A Message-Passing Interface Standard. 1995. Message Passing Interface Forum, http://www.mpi-forum.org.
Nacul, E.C. and Aziz, K. 1991. Use of Irregular Grid in Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 22886 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 6–9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22886-MS.
OpenMP Application Program Interface, Version 3.1. 2011. http://www.openmp.org/mp-documents/OpenMP3.1.pdf.
Palagi, C.L. and Aziz, K. 1992. The Modeling of Horizontal and Vertical Wells with Voronoi Grid. Paper SPE 24072 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 30 March–1 April.
Palagi, C.L. and Aziz, K. 1991. Use of Voronoi Grid in Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 22889 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 6–9 October.
Quandalle, P. and Besset, P. 1985. Reduction of Grid Effects due to Local Sub-Gridding in Simulation Using a Composite Grid. Paper SPE 13527 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 10–13 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13527-MS.
Ruppert, J. 1995. A Delaunay Refinement Algorithm for Quality 2-Dimensional Mesh Generation. J. Algorithm 18 (3): 548–585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jagm.1995.1021.
Shewchuk, J.R. 2002. Delaunay Refinement Algorithm for Triangular Mesh Generation. Comp. Geom. 22 (1–3): 21–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7721(01)00047-5.
Skoreyko, F., Sammon, P. and Melichar, H. 2003. Use of PEBI Grids for Complex Advanced Process Simulators. Paper SPE 79685 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, Texas, 3–5 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79685-MS.
Vestergaard, H., Olsen, H., Sikandar, A.S., et al. 2008. The Application of Unstructured-Gridding Techniques for Full-Field Simulation of a Giant Carbonate Reservoir Developed with Long Horizontal Wells. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (6): 958–967. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/120887-PA.