A Semi-Implicit Approach for Integrated Reservoir and Surface-Network Simulation
- Jialing Liang (Computer Modelling Group Limited) | Barry Rubin (Computer Modelling Group Limited)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 559 - 571
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.8 Well Performance Monitoring, Inflow Performance, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing
- IPR prediction, drainage region, coupled simulation, semiimplicit IPR, inflow performance relationship
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 462 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Conventionally, methods of coupling reservoirs and surface networks are categorized into implicit and explicit approaches. The term "implicit coupling" indicates that the two simulators solve unknowns together, simultaneously, or iteratively, whereas "explicit coupling" indicates that the two simulators solve unknowns sequentially and exchange their boundary conditions at the last coupled time tn. The explicit approach is straightforward to implement in existing reservoir and surface-network models and is widely used. Explicit coupling does have drawbacks, however, because well rate and pressure oscillations are often observed. In this paper, a new semi-implicit method for coupled simulation is presented. This technique stabilizes and improves the accuracy of the coupled model. The "semi-implicit coupling" overcomes the problems found in explicit-coupling methods without requiring the complexity of a fully implicit coupled model. The new approach predicts inflow-performance-relationship (IPR) curves at the next coupled time tn+1 by simultaneously conducting well tests for all wells in the reservoir before actually taking the required timestep. All wells first flow simultaneously to the next coupled time tn+1 with the well rates unchanged from the last coupled timestep. The timestep is rewound, and all well rates are reduced by a uniform fraction and then simultaneously flow again to tn+1. By extrapolating the resulting well pressures, the well’s shut-in pressures at time tn+1 are determined, and thus, straight-line IPRs are produced. The new IPR curves approximate better each well’s drainage region at tn+1 and each well’s shut-in pressure at tn+1 which helps to stabilize the explicitly coupled model. The new coupling technique normally does not require iteration between the reservoir and surface network and normally has the stability and accuracy characteristics of an implicitly coupled approach. Because the well tests already account for individual well-drainage regions, an explicit knowledge of the well-drainage region is not required. Because of the stabilized IPR, the approach also was found to reduce the overall computational time compared with explicit coupling. Applications of the new approach are presented that show significant improvements surpassing explicit coupling in both stability and accuracy.
|File Size||825 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Al-Mutairi, S., Hayder, E., Munoz, A. et al. 2010. A Study of Coupling Surface Network to Reservoir Simulation Model in a Large Middle East Field. Presented at the SPE North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition, Cairo, Egypt, 14–17 February. SPE-127976-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/127976-MS.
Anderson, J.S. 1991. Pressure Mapping as an Aid to Understanding Reservoir Drainage. Presented at the Asia-Pacific Conference, Perth, Western Australia, 4–7 November. SPE-22962-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22962-MS.
Barroux, C.C., Duchet-Suchaux, P., and Samier, P. 2000. Linking Reservoir and Surface Simulators: How to Improve the Coupled Solutions. Presented at the SPE European Petroleum Conference, 24–25 October, Paris, France. SPE-65159-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65159-MS.
Byer, T.J., Michael, G.E., and Aziz, K. 1999. A Preconditioned Adaptive Implicit Method for Reservoirs With Surface Facilities. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, 14–17 February, Houston, Texas. SPE-51895-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/51895-MS.
Coats, B.K., Fleming, G.C., Watts, J.W. et al. 2004. A Generalized Wellbore and Surface Facility Model, Fully Coupled to a Reservoir Simulator. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (2): 132–142. SPE-87913-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87913-PA.
Dempsey, J.R., Patterson, J.K., Coats, K.H. et al. 1971. An Efficient Method for Evaluating Gas Field Gathering System Design. J Pet Technol 23 (9): 1067–1073. SPE-3161-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3161-PA.
Emanuel, A.S. and Ranney, J.C. 1981. Studies of Offshore Reservoir With an Interfaced Reservoir/Piping Network Simulator. J Pet Technol 33 (3): 399–406. SPE-8331-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8331-PA.
Fetkovich, M.J. 1973. The Isochronal Testing of Oil Wells. Presented at the Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Las Vegas, Nevada, 30 September–3 October. SPE-4529-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4529-MS.
Güyagüler, B., Zapata, V.J., Cao, H. et al. 2011. Near-Well Subdomain Simulations for Accurate Inflow Performance Relationship Calculation to Improve Stability of Reservoir-Network Coupling. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 634–643. SPE-141207-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141207-PA.
Hayder, M.E., Putra, S.A., and Shammari, A.T. 2011. Coupled Facility and Reservoir Simulations to Optimize Strategies for a Mature Field. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, 9–11 October, Abu Dhabi, UAE. SPE-147994-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147994-MS.
Hepguler, G.G., Barua, S., and Bard, W. 1997. Integration of a Field Surface and Production Network With a Reservoir Simulator. SPE Comp App 9 (3): 88–92. SPE-38937-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38937-PA.
Litvak, M.L. and Darlow, B.L. 1995. Surface Network and Well Tubinghead Pressure Constraints in Compositional Simulation. Presented at the 13th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, 12–15 February, San Antonio, Texas. SPE-29125-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29125-MS.
Martin, John C. 1959. Simplified Equations of Flow in Gas Drive Reservoirs and the Theoretical Foundation of Multiphase Pressure Buildup Analyses. Petroleum Trans., AIME 216: 321–323. SPE1235-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1235-G.
Matthews, C.S., Brons, F., and Hazebroke, P. 1954. A Method for Determination of Average Pressure in a Bounded Reservoir. Petroleum Trans., AIME 201: 182–191. SPE-296-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/296-G.
Matthews, C.S. and Russell, D.G. 1967. Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests in Wells, Vol. 1, 13–16. Richardson, Texas: Monograph Series, SPE.
Middya, U. and Dogru, A.H. 2008. Computation of Average Well Drainage Pressure for a Parallel Reservoir Simulator. Saudi Aramco J. Technology, 36–41.
Odeh, A.S. 1981. Comparison of Solutions to a Three-Dimensional Black-Oil Reservoir Simulation Problem. J Pet Technol 33 (1): 13–25. SPE-9723-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9723-PA.
Perrine, R.L. 1956. Analysis of Pressure Buildup Curves. In Drilling and Production Practice, 482–509. API. SPE-56-482-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56-482-MS.
Ramey, H.J. and Cobb, William M. 1971. A General Pressure Buildup Theory for a Well in a Closed Drainage Area. J Pet Technol 23 (12): 1493–1505. SPE-3012-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3012-PA.
Schiozer, D.J. and Aziz, K. 1994. Use of Domain Decomposition for Simultaneous Simulation of Reservoir and Surface Facilities. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, 23–25 March, Long Beach, California. SPE-27876-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27876-MS.
Shiralkar, G.S. and Watts, J.W. 2005. An Efficient Formulation for Simultaneous Solution of the Surface Network Equations. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, 31 January–2 Feburary, Houston, Texas. SPE-93073-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93073-MS.
Standing, M.B. 1971. Concerning the Calculation of Inflow Performance of Wells Producing From Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 23 (9): 1141–1142. SPE-3332-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3332-PA.
Startzman, R.A., Brummet, W.M., Ranney, J. et al. 1977. Computer Combines Offshore Facilities and Reservoir Forecasts. Petroleum Engineer, May: 65–74.
Tingas, J., Frimpong, R., and Liou, J. 1998. Integrated Reservoir and Surface Network Simulation in Reservoir Management of Southern North Sea Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE European Petroleum Conference, 20–22 October, The Hague, The Netherlands. SPE-50635-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/50635-MS.
Trick, M.D. 1998. A Different Approach to Coupling a Reservoir Simulator With a Surface Facilities model. Presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, 15–18 March, Calgary, Canada. SPE-40001-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/40001-MS.
Zapata, V.J., Brummett, W.M., Osborne, M.E. et al. 2001. Advances in Tightly Coupled Reservoir/Wellbore/Surface-Network Simulation. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (2): 114–120. SPE-71120-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71120-PA.