A Generalized Framework Model for the Simulation of Gas Production in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs
- Yu-Shu Wu (Colorado School of Mines) | Jianfang Li (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development) | Didier Ding (IFP Energies Nouvelles) | Cong Wang (Colorado School of Mines) | Yuan Di (Peking University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 845 - 857
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- reservoir simulation, unconventional reservoir, tight gas, shale gas
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 902 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Unconventional gas resources from tight-sand and shale gas reservoirs have received great attention in the past decade around the world because of their large reserves and technical advances in developing these resources. As a result of improved horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing technologies, progress is being made toward commercial gas production from such reservoirs, as demonstrated in the US. However, understandings and technologies needed for the effective development of unconventional reservoirs are far behind the industry needs (e.g., gas-recovery rates from those unconventional resources remain very low). There are some efforts in the literature on how to model gas flow in shale gas reservoirs by use of various approaches - from modified commercial simulators to simplified analytical solutions - leading to limited success. Compared with conventional reservoirs, gas flow in ultralow-permeability unconventional reservoirs is subject to more nonlinear, coupled processes, including nonlinear adsorption/desorption, non-Darcy flow (at both high flow rate and low flow rate), strong rock/fluid interaction, and rock deformation within nanopores or microfractures, coexisting with complex flow geometry and multiscaled heterogeneity. Therefore, quantifying flow in unconventional gas reservoirs has been a significant challenge, and traditional representative-elementary-volume- (REV) based Darcy's law, for example, may not be generally applicable. In this paper, we discuss a generalized mathematical framework model and numerical approach for unconventional-gas-reservoir simulation. We present a unified framework model able to incorporate known mechanisms and processes for two-phase gas flow and transport in shale gas or tight gas formations. The model and numerical scheme are based on generalized flow models with unstructured grids. We discuss the numerical implementation of the mathematical model and show results of our model-verification effort. Specifically, we discuss a multidomain, multicontinuum concept for handling multiscaled heterogeneity and fractures [i.e., the use of hybrid modeling approaches to describe different types and scales of fractures or heterogeneous pores - from the explicit modeling of hydraulic fractures and the fracture network in stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) to distributed natural fractures, microfractures, and tight matrix]. We demonstrate model application to quantify hydraulic fractures and transient flow behavior in shale gas reservoirs.
|File Size||947 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Blasingame, T.A. 2008. The Characteristic Flow Behavior of Low-Permeability Reservoir Systems. Paper SPE 114168 presented at the SPE Unconventional Reservoirs Conference, Keystone, Colorado, 10–12 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118-MS.
Bustin, R.M., Bustin, A.M.M., Cui, X. et al. 2008. Impact of Shale Properties on Pore Structure and Storage Characteristics. Paper SPE 119892 presented at the SPE Gas Production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, 16–18 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119892-MS.
Cipolla, C.L. 2009. Modeling Production and Evaluating Fracture Performance in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. J. Pet Tech 61 (9): 84–90 (Distinguished Author Series). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/118536-PA.
Cipolla, C.L., Lolon, E.P., Erdle, J.C. et al. 2010. Reservoir Modeling in Shale-Gas Reservoirs. Res Eval & Eng. 13 (4): 638–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125530-PA.
Cipolla, C.L., Warpinski, N.R., Mayerhofer, M.J. et al. 2009. The Relationship Between Fracture Complexity, Reservoir Properties, and Fracture Treatment Design. Paper SPE 115769 presented at the SPE ATC&E, Denver, Colorado, 21–24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115769-MS.
Davies, J.P. and Davies, D.K. 1999. Stress-Dependent Permeability Characterization and Modeling. Paper SPE 56813 presented at the SPE ATCE, Houston, Texas, 3–6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56813-MS.
EIA (US Energy Information Administration). 2011. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States (April).
Ertekin, T., King, G.R., and and Schwerer, F.C. 1986. Dynamic Gas Slippage: A Unique Dual-Mechanism Approach to the Flow of Gas in Tight Formations. SPE Form Eval 1 (1): 43–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12045-PA.
Evans, R.D., and Civan, F. 1994. Characterization of Non-Darcy Multiphase Flow in Petroleum Bearing Formation. Final Report for US Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy.
Forsyth, P.A., Wu, Y.S., and Pruess, K. 1995. Robust Numerical Methods for Saturated-Unsaturated Flow With Dry Initial Conditions in Heterogeneous Media. Advance in Water Resources 18: 25–38.
Freeman, C.M., Moridis, G.J., Ilk, D. et al. 2010. A Numerical Study of Transport and Storage Effects for Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems. Paper SPE 131583 presented at the SPE International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Beijing, China, 8–10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131583-MS.
Freeman, C.M., Moridis, G.J., and Blasingame, T.A. 2009a. A Numerical Study of Microscale Flow Behavior in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems. Proceedings of the 2010 TOUGH Symposium, Berkeley, California, 14–16 September.
Freeman, C.M., Moridis, G.J., Ilk, D. et al. 2009b. A Numerical Study of Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems. Paper SPE 124961 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–9 October.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124961-MS.
Gao, C., Lee, J.W., Spivey, J.P. et al. 1994. Modeling Multilayer Gas Reservoirs Including Sorption Effects. Paper SPE 29173 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Conference and Exhibition, Charleston, West Virginia, 8–10 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29173-MS.
Kelkar M. and Atiq, M. 2010. Upgrading Method for Tight Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 133301 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133301-MS.
Klinkenberg, L.J. 1941. The Permeability of Porous Media to Liquids and Gases. In API Drilling and Production Practice, 200–213.
Langmuir, I. 1916. The Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids and Liquids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38 (11): 2221–2295.
Leahy-Dios, A., Das, M., Agarwal, A. et al. 2011. Modeling of Transport Phenomena and Multicomponent Sorption for Shale Gas and Coalbed Methane in an Unstructured Grid Simulator. Paper SPE 147352 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference, Denver, Colorado, 30 Octomber–-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147352-MS.
Lei, Q., Xiong, W., Yuan, J. et al. 2007. Analysis of Stress Sensitivity and Its Influence on Oil Production From Tight Reservoirs. Paper SPE 111148 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, 17–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111148-MS.
Leverett, M.C. 1941. Capillary Behavior in Porous Media. Trans AIME 142: 341–358.
Li, J., Du, C.M., and Zhang, X. 2011. Critical Evaluation of Shale Gas Reservoir Simulation Approaches: Single-Porosity and Dual-Porosity Modeling. Paper presented at the SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscal, Oman, 31 January–2 February.
Mengal, S.A. and Wattenbarger, R.A. 2011. Accounting for Adsorbed Gas in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 141085 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141085-MS.
Moridis, G.J., Blasingame, T.A., and Freeman, C.M. 2010. Analysis of Mechanisms of Flow in Fractured Tight-Gas and Shale-Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 139250 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Lima, Peru, 1–3 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139250-MS.
Ozkan, E., Raghavan, R., and Apaydin, O.G. 2010. Modeling of Fluid Transfer From Shale Matrix to Fracture Network. Paper SPE 134830 presented at the SPE ATC&E, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134830-MS.
Pruess, K. 1983. GMINC—A Mesh Generator for Flow Simulations in Fractured Reservoirs, Report LBL-15227, Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Pruess, K. and Narasimhan, T.N. 1985. A Practical Method for Modeling Fluid and Heat Flow in Fractured Porous Media. Soc. Pet. Eng. J. 25: 14–26.
Pruess, K., Oldenburg, C., and Moridis, G. 1999. TOUGH2 User’s Guide, Version 2.0, Report LBNL-43134, Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Rubin, B. 2010. Accurate Simulation of Non-Darcy Flow in Stimulated Fractured Shale Reservoirs. Paper SPE 132093 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, 27–29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132093-MS.
Rutqvist, J.Y.,Wu, S., Tsang, C.F. et al. 2002. A Modeling Approach for Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Deformation in Fractured Porous Rock. International J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Sci. 39: 429–442.
Silin, D. and Kneafsey, T. 2011. Gas Shale: From Nanometer-Scale Observations to Well Modeling. Paper CSUG/SPE 149489 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149489-MS.
Soeder, D.J. 1988. Porosity and Permeability of Eastern Devonian Gas Shale. SPE Form Eval 3 (1): 116–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15213-PA.
Tek, M.R., Coats, K.H., and Katz, D.L. 1962. The Effects of Turbulence on Flow of Natural Gas through Porous Reservoirs. J. Pet. Technol. Trans. AIME 222: 799–806.
Wang, F.P., Reed, R.M., Jackson, J.A. et al. 2009. Pore Networks and Fluid Flow in Gas Shales. Paper SPE 124253 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124253-MS.
Winterfeld, P.H. and Wu, Y.S. 2011. Parallel Simulation of CO2 Sequestration With Rock Deformation in Saline Aquifers. Paper SPE 141514 prepared for presentation at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 21–23 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141514-MS.
Winterfeld, P.H. and Wu, Y.S. 2012. A Novel Fully Coupled Geomechanical Model for CO2 Sequestration in Fractured and Porous Brine Aquifers. Paper presented at the XIX International Conference on Water Resources CMWR 2012, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 17–22 June.
Wu, Y.S. 2002. Numerical Simulation of Single-Phase and Multiphase Non-Darcy Flow in Porous and Fractured Reservoirs. Transport in Porous Media 49: 209–240.
Wu, Y.S. and Pruess, K. 1998. A Numerical Method for Simulating Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow and Displacement in Porous Media. Advances in Water Resources 21: 351–362.
Wu, Y.S. and Pruess, K. 2000. Integral Solutions for Transient Fluid Flow Through a Porous Medium With Pressure-Dependent Permeability. International J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Sci. 37: 51–61.
Wu, Y.S., Pruess, K., and Persoff, P. 1998. Gas Flow in Porous Media With Klinkenberg Effects. Transport in Porous Media 32: 117–137.
Wu, Y.S., Rutqvist, J., Karasaki, K. et al. 2008. A Mathematic Model for Rock Deformation Effect of Flow in Porous and Fractured Reservoirs. Paper ARMA-08-142 presented at the 42nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium and 2nd US–Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, California, 29 June–2 July.
Wu, Y.S. and Wang, C. 2012. Transient Pressure Testing Analysis of Gas Wells in Unconventional Reservoirs. Paper SPE-SAS-312 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition (ATS&E), Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 8–11 April.
Wu, Y.S., Wang, C., Li, J. et al. 2012. Transient Gas Flow in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 154448 presented at the EAGE Annual Conference and & Exhibition Incorporating SPE Europec, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154448-MS.
Wu, Y.S., Pruess, K., and Witherspoon, P.A. 1992. Flow and Displacement of Bingham Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (3): 369–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20051-PA.
Xiong, W., Lei, Q., Yuan, J. et al. 2008. Behavior of Flow Through Low-Permeability Reservoirs. Paper SPE 113144 prepared for presentation at the SPE EUROPEC Conference, Rome, Italy, 9–12 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113144-MS.
Zhao, X. 1991. An Experimental Study of Methane Diffusion in Coal Using Transient Approach, PhD dissertation, Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, University of Arizona.