- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Comparison of Reduced and Conventional Two-Phase Flash Calculations
- Seyhan Emre Gorucu (The Pennsylvania State University) | Russell T. Johns (The Pennsylvania State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6.3 Fluid Dynamics, 6.5 Reservoir Simulation, 6.2 Fluids Characterization, 6.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 6 Reservoir Description and Dynamics, 6.4.7 Miscible Methods, 6.4 Primary and Enhanced Recovery Processes
- flash calculations, compositional simulation, minimization of Gibbs energy, equation of state, reduced methods
- 27 in the last 30 days
- 141 since 2007
- Show more detail
Phase-equilibrium calculations become computationally intensive in compositional simulation as the number of components and phases increases. Reduced methods were developed to address this problem, where the binary-interaction-parameter (BIP) matrix is approximated either by spectral decomposition (SD), as performed by Hendriks and van Bergen (1992), or with the two-parameter BIP formula of Li and Johns (2006). Several authors have recently stated that the SD method--and by reference all reduced methods--is not as fast as previously reported in the literature. In this paper we present the first study that compares all eight reduced and conventional methods published to date by use of optimized code and compilers. The results show that the SD method and its variants are not as fast as other reduced methods, and can be slower than the conventional approach when fewer than 10 components are used. These conclusions confirm the findings of recently published papers. The reason for the slow speed is the requirement that the code must allow for a variable number of eigenvalues. We show that the reduced method of Li and Johns (2006) and its variants, however, are faster because the number of reduced parameters is fixed to six, which is independent of the number of components. Speed up in flash calculations for their formula is achieved for all fluids studied when more than six components are used. For example, for 10-component fluids, a speed up of 2-3 in the computational time for Newton-Raphson (NR) iterations is obtained compared with the conventional method modeled after minimization of Gibbs energy. The reduced method modeled after the linearized approach of Nichita and Graciaa (2011), which uses the two-parameter BIP formula of Li and Johns (2006), is also demonstrated to have a significantly larger radius of convergence than other reduced and conventional methods for five fluids studied.
Chang, Y.-B., Pope, G.A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1990. A Higher-Order Finite-Difference Compositional Simulator. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 5 (1): 35–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(90)90004-M.
Gorucu, S.E. 2013. Reduced Phase Equilibrium Calculations: New Reduced Parameters, Critical Analysis and Fluid Characterization. PhD dissertation, the Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania (December 2013).
Gorucu, S.E. and Johns, R.T. 2011. Improved Reduced Flash Calculation Algorithm. Oral presentation given at the International Energy Agency Enhanced Oil Recovery 32nd Annual Symposium and Workshop, Vienna, Austria, 17–19 October.
Gorucu, S.E. and Johns, R.T. 2013. New Reduced Parameters for Flash Calculations Based on Two-Parameter BIP Formula. Oral presentation given at EAGE 17th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, St. Petersburg, Russia, 16 April.
Gorucu, S.E. and Johns, R.T. 2014. New Reduced Parameters for Flash Calculations Based on Two-Parameter BIP Formula. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 116 (April): 50–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.02.015.
Haugen, K.B. and Beckner B.L. 2011. Are Reduced Methods for EOS Calculations Worth the Effort? Paper presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 21–23 February. SPE-141399-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141399-MS.
Haugen, K.B. and Beckner B.L. 2013. A Critical Comparison of Reduced and Conventional EOS Algorithms. SPE J. 18 (2): 378–388. SPE-141399-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141399-PA.
Hendriks, E.M. 1988. Reduction Theorem for Phase Equilibrium Problems. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 27 (9): 1728–1732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00081a027.
Hendriks, E.M. and van Bergen, A.R.D. 1992. Application of a Reduction Method to Phase Equilibria Calculations. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 74 (15 July): 17–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(92)85050-I.
Jensen, B.H. and Fredenslund, A. 1987. A Simplified Flash Procedure for Multicomponent Mixtures Containing Hydrocarbons and One Non-Hydrocarbon Using Two-Parameter Cubic Equations of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 26 (10): 2129–2134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00070a032.
Kenyon, D.E. and Alda Behie, G. 1987. Third SPE Comparative Solution Project: Gas Cycling of Retrograde Condensate Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 39 (8): 981–997. SPE-12278-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12278-PA.
Li, Y. and Johns, R.T. 2006. Rapid Flash Calculations for Compositional Simulation. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (5): 521–529. SPE-95732-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95732-PA.
Michelsen, M.L. 1982. The Isothermal Flash Problem. Part 2. Phase-Split Calculation. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 9 (1): 21–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(82)85002-4.
Michelsen, M.L. 1986. Simplified Flash Calculations for Cubic Equations of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 25 (1): 184–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i200032a029.
Michelsen, M.L., Yan, W., and Stenby, E.H. 2012. A Comparative Study of Reduced Variables Based Flash and Conventional Flash. Presented at SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. SPE-154477-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154477-MS.
Michelsen, L.M., Yan, W., and Stenby, E.H. 2013. A Comparative Study of Reduced-Variables-Based Flash and Conventional Flash. SPE J. 18 (5): 952–959. SPE-154477-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154477-PA.
Mehra, R.K., Heidemann, R.A., and Aziz, K. 1982. Computation of Multiphase Equilibrium for Compositional Simulation. SPE J. 22 (1): 61–68. SPE-9232-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9232-PA.
Mohebbinia, S., Sepehrnoori, K., and Johns, R.T. 2012. Four-Phase Equilibrium Calculations of CO2/Hydrocarbon/Water Systems Using a Reduced Method. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 14–18 April. SPE-154218-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154218-MS.
Nghiem, L.X and Li, Y. 1984. Computation of Multiphase Equilibrium Phenomena With an Equation of State. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 17 (1): 77–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(84)80013-8.
Nichita, D.V. and Graciaa, A. 2011. A New Reduction Method For Phase Equilibrium Calculations. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 302 (1–2): 226–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2010.11.007.
Nichita, D.V. and Minescu, F. 2008. Efficient Phase Equilibrium Calculation in a Reduced Flash Context. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 82 (6): 1225–1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450820610.
Okuno, R. 2009. Modeling of Multiphase Behavior for Gas Flooding Simulation. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (August 2009).
Okuno, R., Johns, R.T., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2010a. Application of a Reduced Method in Compositional Simulation. SPE J. 15 (1): 39–49. SPE-119657-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119657-PA.
Okuno, R., Johns, R.T., and Sepehrnoori K. 2010b. Three-Phase Flash in Compositional Simulation Using a Reduced Method. SPE J. 15 (3): 689–703. SPE-125226-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125226-PA.
Pan, H. and Firoozabadi, A. 2002. Fast and Robust Algorithm for Compositional Modeling: Part I – Stability Analysis Testing. SPE J. 7 (1): 78–89. SPE-77299-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77299-PA.
Pan, H. and Firoozabadi, A. 2003. Fast and Robust Algorithm for Compositional Modeling: Part II – Two-Phase Flash Computations. SPE J. 8 (4): 380–391. SPE-87335-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87335-PA.
Pan, H. and Tchelepi, H.A. 2010. Reduced-Variables Method for General-Purpose Compositional Reservoir Simulation. Presented at International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, China, 8–10 June. SPE-131737-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131737-MS.
Perschke, D.R., Chang, Y.-B., Pope, G.A., et al. 1989. Comparison of Phase Behavior Algorithms for an Equation-of-State Compositional Simulator. SPE-19443-MS.
Rachford, H.H. and Rice, J.D. 1952. Procedure for Use of Electronic Digital Computers in Calculating Flash Vaporization Hydrocarbon Equilibrium. Petrol. Trans. AIME. 195: 327–328.
Sandler, S.I. 2004. Models for Thermodynamic and Phase Equilibria Calculations. New York City, New York: Marcel Dekker.
Wilson, G. 1969. A Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation of State, Application to General Physical Data Calculations. Oral presentation given at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 65th National Meeting, Cleveland, Ohio, 4–7 May.
Yan, W., Michelsen, M.L., Stenby E.H., et al. 2011. On Two Flash Methods for Compositional Reservoir Simulations: Table Look-up and Reduced Variables. Oral presentation given at the IEA-EOR 32nd Annual Workshop and Symposium, Vienna, Austria, 23–26 May.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.