Real-Time Evaluation of Hole-Cleaning Conditions With a Transient Cuttings-Transport Model
- Eric Cayeux (IRIS) | Taiwo Mesagan (Statoil) | Sakti Tanripada (Statoil) | Mohamed Zidan (Statoil) | Kjell Kåre Fjelde (University of Stavanger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- March 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 5 - 21
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management, 1.7.7 Cuttings Transport, 1.7.2 Managed Pressure Drilling, 1.6 Drilling Operations
- transient model, real-time, hole cleaning
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 1,129 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
During a drilling operation, a real-time analysis of surface and downhole measurements can give indications of poor hole cleaning. However, it is not always intuitive to understand how and where the cuttings are settling in the borehole because the transportation of cuttings and the formation of cuttings beds are largely influenced by the series of actions performed during the operation. With a transient cuttings-transport model, it is possible to get a continuously updated prognosis of the distribution of cuttings in suspension and in beds along the annulus. This information can be of prime importance for making decisions to deal with and prevent poor hole-cleaning conditions. A transient cuttings-transport model has been obtained by integrating closure laws for cuttings transport into a transient drilling model that accounts for both fluid transport and drillstring mechanics. This paper presents how this model was used to monitor two different drilling operations in the North Sea: one using conventional drilling and one using managed-pressure drilling (MPD). Some unknown parameters within the model (e.g., the size of the cuttings particles) were calibrated to obtain a better match with the top-side measurements (cuttings-flow rate, active pit reduction as a result of cuttings removal). With the calibrated model, the prediction of cuttings-bed locations was confirmed by actual drilling incidents such as packoffs and overpulls while tripping out of hole. On the basis of the calibrated transient cuttings-transport model, it is thereby possible to evaluate the adjustments of the drilling parameters that are necessary to stop and possibly remove the cuttings beds, thus giving the drilling team the opportunity to take remedial and preventive actions on the basis of quantitative evaluations, rather than solely on the intuition and experience of the decision makers.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||17|
API RP 13D. 2006. Rheology and Hydraulics of Oil-Well Drilling Fluids, fifth edition.
Bassal, A.A. 1995. A Study of the Effect of Drill Pipe Rotation on Cuttings Transport in Inclined Wellbores. MS thesis, University of Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Beaulne, M. and Mitsoulis, E. 1997. Creeping Motion of a Sphere in Tubes Filled With Herschel–Bulkley Fluids. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 72: 55–71.
Beirute, R.M. and Flumerfelt, R.W. 1977. An Evaluation of the Robertson-Stiff Model Describing Rheological Properties of Drilling Fluids and Cement Slurries. SPE J. 17 (2): 97–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6505-PA.
Belarde, M. and Vestavik, O. 2011. Deployment of Reelwell Drilling Method in Shale Gas Field in Canada. Paper SPE 145599 presented at the SPE Offshore Europe Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 6–8 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145599-MS.
Blikra, H., Drevdal, K.E., and Aarestad, T.V. 1994. Extended Reach, Horizontal and Complex Wells: Challenges, Achievements and Cost-Benefits. Paper SPE 28005 presented at the University of Tulsa Centennial Petroleum Engineering Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 29–31 August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28005-MS.
Cayeux, E., Daireaux, B., Dvergsnes, E. et al. 2012. An Early Warning System for Identifying Drilling Problems: An Example From a Problematic Drill-Out Cement Operation in the North-Sea. Paper SPE 15942 presented at the SPE Drilling Conference in San Diego, California, 6–8 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15942-MS.
Cayeux, E. and Lande, H.P. 2013. Factors Influencing the Estimation of Downhole Pressure far Away From Measurement Points During Drilling Operations. Paper presented at the SIMS 2013 conference in Bergen, Norway, 16–18 October.
Clark, R.K. and Bickham, K.L. 1994. A Mechanistic Model for Cuttings Transport. Paper SPE 28306 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 25–28 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28306-MS.
Doron, P., Simkhis, M., and Barnea, D. 1997. Flow of Solid-Liquid Mixtures in Inclined Pipes. International J. Multiphase Flow 23 (2): 313–323.
Einstein, A. 1906. Eine Neue Bestimmung Der Moleküldimensionen. Annalen Der Physik 19 (5).
Ford, J.T., Peden, J.M., Oyeneyin, M.B. et al. 1990. Experimental Investigation of Drilled Cuttings Transport in Inclined Boreholes. Paper SPE 20421 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the SPE, New Orleans, Louisiana, 23–26 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20421-MS.
Gavignet, A.A. and Sobey, I.J. 1989. Model Aids Cuttings Transport Prediction. J. Pet Tech 41 (9): 916–921. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15417-PA.
Gmehling, J. and Onken, U. 1977. Vapour-Liquid-Equilibrium Data Collection, Vol. 1, Part 2a, Frankfurt: Verlag & Druckerel Friedrich Bischoff.
Hareland, G., Azar, J.J., and Rampersad, P.R. 1993. Comparison of Cuttings Transport in Directional Drilling Using Low-Toxicity Invert Emulsion Mineral-Oil-Based and Water-Based Muds. Paper SPE 25871 presented at the Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 26–28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25871-MS.
Hastchek, E. 1910. Die Viskosität Der Dispersoide. Kolloid-Zeitschrift 8: 34–39.
Höltzer, A. and Sommerfeld, M. 2008. New Simple Correlation Formula for the Drag Coefficient of Non-Spherical Particles. Powder Technol.184: 361–365.
Houwen, O.H. and Geehan T. 1986. Rheology of Oil-Based Muds. Paper SPE 15416 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15416-MS.
Isambourg, P., Anfinsen, B.T., and Marken, C. 1996. Volumetric Behavior of Drilling Muds at High Pressure and High Temperature. Paper SPE 36830 presented at the European Petroleum Conference, Milan, Italy, 22–24 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36830-MS.
Jalukar, L.S. 1993. Study of Hole Size Effect on Critical and Subcritical Drilling Fluid Velocities in Cuttings Transport for Inclined Wellbores. MS thesis, University of Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Kamp, A.M. and Rivero, M. 1999. Layer Modeling for Cuttings Transport in Highly Inclined Wellbores. Paper SPE 53942 presented at the SPE Annul Technical Conference and Exhibition, Caracas, Venezuela, 21–23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/53942-MS.
Kandula, M. 2011. On the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Porous Packed Beds With Uniform Spherical Particles. J. Porous Media 14 (10): 919–926.
Kemp, N.P., Thomas, D.C., Atkinson, G. et al. 1989. Density Modeling for Brines as a Function of Composition, Temperature, and Pressure. SPE Res Eng 4 (4): 394–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16079-PA.
Lage, A., Fjelde, K.K., and Time, R. 2003. Underbalanced Drilling Dynamics: Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Experiments. SPE J. 8 (1): 61–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/83607-PA.
Larsen, T.I., Pilehvari, A.A., and Azar, J.J. 1997. Development of a New Cuttings-Transport Model for High-Angle Wellbores Including Horizontal Wells. SPE Drill & Compl 12 (2): 129–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25872-PA.
Liles, D.R. and Reed, W.H. 1978. A Semi-Implicit Method for Two-Phase Dynamics J. Computational Physics 26.
Loth, E. 2008. Drag of Non-Spherical Solid Particles of Regular and Irregular Shape. Powder Technol. 182: 342–353.
Marshall, D.W. and Bentsen R.G.1982. A Computer Model to Determine the Temperature Distributions in a Wellbore. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 21 (1): 63–75.
Nagata, I. 1973. Prediction Accuracy of Multicomponent Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium Data From Binary Parameters. J. Chem. Eng. Japan 6 (1).
Nazari, T, Hareland, G., and Azar, J.J. 2010. Review of Cuttings Transport in Directional Well Drilling: Systematic Approach. Paper SPE 132372 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, 27–29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132372-MS.
Ozbayoglu, M.E., Saasen, A., and Sorgun, M. 2008. The Effect of Pipe Rotation on Hole Cleaning for Water-Based Drilling Fluid in Horizontal and Deviated Wells. Paper SPE 114965 presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 25–27 August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114965-MS.
Peden, J.M., Ford, J.T., and Oyeneyin, M.B. 1990. Comprehensive Experimental Investigation of Drilled Cuttings Transport in Inclined Wells Including the Effects of Rotation and Eccentricity. Paper SPE 20925 presented at Europec, The Hague, Netherlands, 22–24 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20925-MS.
Pilehvari, A.A., Azar, J.J., and Shirazi, S.A. 1999. State-of-the-ArtCuttings Transport in Horizontal Wellbores. SPE Drill & Compl 14 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57716-PA.
Ramadan, A., Skalle, P., Johansen, S.T. et al. 2001. Mechanistic Model for Cuttings Removal From Solid Bed in Inclined Channels. J. Pet Sci & Eng 30 (3–4): 129–141.
Ranjbar, R. 2010. Cuttings Transport in Inclined and Horizontal Wellbore. MS thesis, University of Stavanger, Norway.
Renaud, M., Mauret, E., and Chhabra, R. 2004. Power-Law Fluid Flow Over a Sphere: Average Shear Rate and Drag Coefficient. Canadian J. Chem. Eng. 82: 1066–1070.
Robertson, R.E. and Stiff, H.A. 1976. An Improved Mathematical Model for Relating Shear Stress to Shear Rate in Drilling Fluids and Cement Slurries. SPE J. 16 (1): 31–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5333-PA.
Rowley, R. 1981. A local Composition Model for Multicomponent Liquid Mixture Thermal Conductivities. Chem. Eng. Sci. 37 (6): 897–904.
Rubiandini, R.S. 1999. Equation for Estimating Mud Minimum Rate for Cuttings Transport in an Inclined-Until-Horizontal Well. Paper SPE 57541 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 8–10 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57541-MS.
Song, C., Wang, P, and Makse, H.A. 2008. A Phase Diagram for Jammed Matter. Nature 453: 629–632.
Tomren, P.H., Iyodo, A.W., and Azar, J.J. 1986. Experimental Study of Cuttings Transport in Directional Wells. SPE Drill Eng 1 (1): 43–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12123-PA.
Trapp, J.A. and Riemke, R.A. 1986. A Nearly-Implicit Hydrodynamic Numerical Scheme for Two-Phase Flows. J. Computational Physics 66.
Whittaker, A. 1985. Theory and Application of Drilling Fluid Hydraulics. Vol. 1, Book series: Exlog Series of Petroleum Geology and Engineering Handbooks, Springer.
Yao, D. and Robello, S. 2008. Annular Pressure Loss Predictions for Various Stand-off Devices. Paper SPE 112544 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Orlando, Florida, 4–6 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112544-MS.
Zheng, J., Carlson, W., and Reed, J. 1995. The Packing Density of Binary Powder Mixtures. J. European Ceramic Society 15 (5): 479–483.