- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Operational Control and Managing Change: The Integration of Nontechnical Skills With Workplace Procedures
- John Thorogood (Drilling Global Consultant LLP) | Margaret T. Crichton (People Factor Consultants Ltd)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- May 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 203 - 211
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 367 since 2007
- Show more detail
Some of the common pitfalls and problems associated with managing operations are discussed, with suggestions about how these can be addressed. Existing literature on human error, operational decision making, and industrial psychology is combined with the authors' experiences in researching these problems and working with operations teams. The nontechnical skills required to manage operations effectively are described together with the organizational structures and work processes that best support operations. Techniques for training teams and helping them to develop the competencies to manage operations safely and to deal with uncertainty are explained. Mindful that "proper planning prevents poor performance," engineers go to considerable lengths to create quality plans. A structured well-delivery process is followed, complete with peer reviews, risk assessments, and technical sign-offs. Deliverables include statements of requirements, basis-of-design documents, hazard identification (HAZID) sessions, drill-the-well-on-paper meetings, and a drilling program. Despite these preparations, teams make decisions during operations with sometimes costly consequences, especially when surprised by an unexpected event or when facing high levels of uncertainty. This problem is not unusual and typically occurs when a project team fails to prepare and actively manage its transition from planning to operations, and to anticipate the necessary change in the functions of the team. Planning and operations require completely different mindsets. The lack of preparation for this transition stems from a common assumption that the team that has performed the planning is more than capable of managing a dynamic operation effectively. Research has identified that two different modes are required--during the planning phase, teams produce a plan designed to solve a problem, whereas during operations the team has to manage a task requiring the ability to adapt dynamically to shifting demands of the situation. Effective operations management requires both a high degree of operational discipline and teams that are skilled in dealing with the unexpected and making decisions in time-constrained situations. These skills are not intuitive and must be taught, trained, practiced, and assessed. The protocols and decision rights must be clear, and the team must be trained so that it executes these functions in a fluent and competent manner. The oil industry lacks an international regulatory framework enjoyed by aviation. It lacks even basic standardization about how rigs are operated, wells are drilled, and operations are monitored. These are essential prerequisites for an environment within which a standardized operational discipline can be developed and implemented. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to propose a framework for operational governance within which the development of nontechnical-skills training can be built.
Aldred, W., Hutin, R., Luppens, J.C. et al. 2008. Development and Testing ofa Rig-Based Quick Event Detection System to Mitigate Drilling Risks. Paper SPE111757 presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Orlando, Florida, 4-6March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111757-MS.
Bond, D.F., Scott, P.W., Page, P.E. et al. 1996. Step Change Improvement andHigh Rate Learning Are Delivered by Targeting Technical Limits on Sub-SeaWells. Paper SPE 35077 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, NewOrleans, Louisiana, 12-15 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35077-MS.
BP. 2010. "Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report."
CAA. 2003. CAP 716, "Aviation Maintenance Human Factors," UK Civil AviationAuthority, Safety Regulation Group, 18 December.
CAA. 2006. CAP 737, "Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training," UK CivilAviation Authority, Safety Regulation Group, 29 November.
Cayeux, E., Dvergsnes, E.W., and Iversen, F. 2009. Real-time Optimization ofthe Drilling Process--Challenges in Industrialization. Paper SPE 119650presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam,The Netherlands, 17-19 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119650-MS.
Cayeux, E., Daireaux, B., Wolden, E. et al. 2012. An Early Warning Systemfor Identifying Drilling Problems: An Example From a Problematic Drill-OutCement Operation in the North Sea. Paper SPE 150942 presented at the IADC/SPEDrilling Conference and Exhibition, San Diego, California, 6-8 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150942-MS.
Chief Counsel's Report. 2011. "Macondo: The Gulf Oil Disaster," NationalCommission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling.
Clay, T. and Hatch, A. 1999. A New Well Design and Construction Process.Paper SPE 57561 presented at the SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling TechnologyConference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 8-10 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57561-MS.
Crichton, M. 2003. Decision Making in a Nuclear Emergency ResponseOrganization: The Access Controller. Unpublished PhD thesis, University ofAberdeen, Aberdeen.
Crichton, M., Henderson, W.G., and Thorogood, J.L. 2004. Command Skills forDrilling and Completion Teams: Managing the Unexpected. Paper SPE 89901presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston,Texas, 26-29 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89901-MS.
Dekker, S. 2011. Drift Into Failure: From Hunting Broken Components toUnderstanding Complex Systems, Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom: AshgatePublishing.
deWardt, J.P. 2010. Well Delivery Process: A Proven Method To Improve Valueand Performance While Reducing Cost. Paper SPE 128716 presented at theIADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-4February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128716-MS.
Endsley, M. 1995. A Taxonomy of Situation Awareness Errors. In HumanFactors in Aviation Operations, R. Fuller and N. Johnston, eds., Aldershot,England: Avebury Aviation.
Endsley, M. and Garland, D. 2000. Situation Awareness. Analysis andMeasurement. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Flin, R., Martin, L., Goeters, K.-M. et al. 2003. Development of the NOTECHS(Non-Technical Skills) System for Assessing Pilots' CRM Skills. HumanFactors and Aerospace Safety 3 (2): 95-117.
Flin, R., O'Connor, P., and Crichton, M. 2008. Safety at the Sharp End. AGuide to Non-Technical Skills. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing.
GIHRE (Group Interaction in High Risk Environments). 2001. EnhancingPerformance in High-Risk Environments. Recommendations for the Use ofBehavioural Markers. Berlin.
Helmreich, R., Merritt, A.C., and Wilhelm, J. 1999. The Evolution of CrewResource Management Training in Commercial Aviation. International J.Aviation Psychology 9 (1): 19-32.
Home Office. 1997. Dealing with Disaster, third edition. London:HMSO.
Hopkins, A. (ed.) 2009. Learning From High-Reliability Organisations,CCH Australia Ltd.
Hopkins, A. 2010a. Failure to Learn: The BP Texas City RefineryDisaster. CCH Australia Ltd.
Hopkins, A. 2010b. Risk Management and Rule Compliance Decision-making inHazardous Industries. Working Paper No. 72, National Research Centre of OHSRegulation, Australia, http://ohs.anu.edu.au/publications/index.php.
Hopkins, A. 2012. Disastrous Decisions. CCH Australia Ltd.
Hudson, P. 1999. Safety Culture—Theory and Practice. In Proceedings ofthe RTO HFM Workshop The Human Factor in System Reliability--Is HumanPerformance Predictable? (RTO MP-032) Siena, Italy, 1-2 December.
ICAO. 2005. "Threat and Error Management (TEM) in Air Traffic Control."Report prepared for the Secretary General (available at:http://flightsafety.org/files/tem_icao_10-05.pdf)
Kahneman, D. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. London: PenguinBooks.
Kayser, H., McIntosh, J., Williamson, I. et al. 2008. New Generation WellProject Management Application Improves Cycle Time, Workflow Efficiency,Corporate Compliance, and Knowledge Sharing (and people like it!). Paper SPE111759 presented at the SPE Intelligent Energy Conference and Exhibition,Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 25-27 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111759-MS.
Keyser, L.W. 1974. "Apollo Experience Report: The Role of Flight MissionRules in Mission Preparation and Conduct," NASA Technical Note D-7822.
Klein, G. 1993. A Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD). Model of Rapid DecisionMaking. In Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, G.A. Klein, J.Orasanu, R. Calderwood, and C.E. Zsambok, eds., pp. 138-147. Norwood, NewJersey: Ablex.
OGP. 2011. International Association of Oil and Gas Producers, GlobalIndustry Response Group, "Deepwater Wells: Lessons and Recommendations," www.ogp.org.uk/pubs/463.pdf.
Pruyn, P.W. and Sterling, M.R. 2006. Space Flight Resource Management:Lessons Learned From Astronaut Team Learning. Reflections: The SoLJ. 7 (2): 45-57.
Raja, H., Sørmo, F., and Vinther, M. 2011. Case-based Reasoning: PredictingReal-Time Drilling Problems and Improving Drilling Performance. Paper SPE141598 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference,Manama, Bahrain, 25-28 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141598-MS.
Reason, J. 2004. Beyond the Organisational Accident: The Need for "ErrorWisdom" on the Frontline. Quality in Safety and Health Care 13 (2): 28-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2003.009548.
Sadlier, A., Wolfe, C., Reese, M. et al 2011. Automated Alarms for ManagingDrilling Pressure and Maintaining Wellbore Stability. Paper SPE 146298presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146298-MS.
Salas, E., Wilson-Donnelly, K.A., Burke, C.S. et al. 2006. Does CRM TrainingWork? An Update, Extension, and Some Critical Needs. Human Factors 48 (2): 392-412.
Sawaryn, S., Dressler, D., Been, K. et al. 2005. Deploying Common ProcessAcross Global Wells Teams. Paper SPE 95442 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95442-MS.
Thorogood, J.L. 2012a. Automation in Drilling: Future Evolution and LessonsFrom Aviation. Paper SPE 151257 presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conferenceand Exhibition, San Diego, California, 6-8 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151257-MS.
Thorogood, J.L. 2012b. Is there a Place for High-Reliability Organisation inDrilling? Paper SPE 151338 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference andExhibition, San Diego, California, 6-8 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151338-MS.
Tissington, P. 2001. Decision Making on the Fireground. Unpublished PhDthesis, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen.
Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. 1974. Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristicsand Biases. Science 185 (4157): 1124-1131.
Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. 1986. Rational Choice and the Framing ofDecisions. J. Business 59 (4): Part 2; 251-278.
Weick, K. and Sutcliffe, K.M. 2001. Managing the Unexpected—Assuring HighPerformance in an Age of Complexity. San Francisco, California:Jossey-Bass.
Weick, K., Sutcliffe, K.M., and Obstfeld, D. 1999. Organizing for HighReliability: Processes of Collective Mindfulness. In Research inOrganizational Behavior, R.S. Sutton and B.M. Staw, eds., Vol. 1, 81-123.Stanford: Jai Press.
Wikipedia. 2012. "Responsibility Assignment Matrix," accessed 10 September2012 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsibility_assignment_matrix.
Woods, D., Dekker, S., Cook, R. et al. 2010. Behind Human Error,Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.