Toward Drilling Automation: On the Necessity of Using Sensors That Relate to Physical Models
- Eric Cayeux (IRIS) | Benoit Daireaux (IRIS) | Erik W. Dvergsnes (IRIS) | Fred Florence (National Oilwell Varco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 236 - 255
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.7.2 Managed Pressure Drilling, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 1.13 Drilling Automation
- drilling automation, real-time, physical model, sensor
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 539 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Current topside and downhole instrumentation at the wellsite has been developed to manually conduct drilling operations. The emergence of automatic drilling-analysis software shows the limitations of today’s measurement capabilities. It is therefore time to analyze the requirements for on-site instrumentation to implement new, efficient drilling-automation technologies. On one hand, drilling is facing more and more difficult conditions with narrow geopressure windows, deepwater, or high-pressure/ high-temperature (HP/HT) conditions. On the other hand, unconventional hydrocarbon reserves may require a considerable amount of wells to be profitable. Drilling automation, by means of smart safeguards, automatic safety triggers, managed-pressure drilling (MPD), and ultimately complete or semiautonomous drilling rigs, can provide the solution to safely construct wells in these challenging settings. The common denominator for the vast majority of drilling-automation solutions is the use of physical models of the drilling process in the form of heat-transfer, mechanical, and hydraulic models. By analyzing the requirements of those models for necessary boundary conditions, it is possible to derive which measurements should be made both at surface and downhole to obtain stable and accurate calculations. This analysis also provides a way to estimate the necessary accuracy of the boundary conditions to ensure reaching the target control tolerance. By use of the boundary-condition analysis, it is possible to derive precisely which measurements should be performed and where they should be performed. As a result, a typical organization of sensors that is compatible with the implementation of drilling-automation solutions is derived.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||20|
Abgrall, R. 2008: A Simple, Flexible and Generic Deterministic Approach to Uncertainty Quantification in Non-Linear Problems: Application to Fluid Flow Problems. INRIA Report No. 00325315 (28 September 2008).
Abrahamsen, E. 2008. Dynamics and Torque Considerations Involved in Top-Drive Casing Running Operations. Paper SPE 115875 presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 25–27 August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115875-MS.
Amani, M., Al-Jubouri, M., 2012. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Ultra-High Pressure and Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Water-Based Drilling Fluids. Paper SPE 157219 presented at the International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Perth, Australia, 11–13 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/157219-MS.
Annis, M. 1967. High-Temperature Flow Properties of Water-Base Drilling Fluids. J. Pet. Tech. 19 (8): 1074–1080. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1698-PA.
Belaid, A. 2005. Modélisation Tridimensionnelle du Comportement Mécanique de la Garniture de Forage dans les Puits à Trajectoire Complexe. PhD dissertation, Ecole Des Mines de Paris, Paris, France (September 2005).
Belarde, M. and Vestavik, O., 2011. Deployment of Reelwell Drilling Method in Shale Gas Field in Canada. Paper SPE 145599 presented at the Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, UK, 6–8 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145599-MS.
Bjørkevold, K.S., Hovland, S., Barr, I., et al. 2010. Successful Use of Real Time Dynamic Flow Modelling to Control a Very Challenging Managed Pressure Drilling Operation in the North Sea. Paper SPE 130311 presented at the SPE/IADC Managed Pressure Drilling and Underbalanced Operations Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 24–25 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130311-MS.
Breyholtz, Ø., Nygaard, G. and Nikolaou, M. 2011. Managed-Pressure Drilling: Using Model Predictive Control To Improve Pressure Control for Dual-Gradient Drilling. SPE Drill & Compl 26 (2): 182–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124631-PA.
Carlsen, L., Nygaard, G. and Time, R. 2012. Utilizing Instrumented Stand Pipe for Monitoring Drilling Fluid Dynamics for Improving Automated Drilling Operations. Oral presentation given at the 2012 IFAC Workshop on Automatic Control in Offshore Oil and Gas Production, Trondheim, Norway, 31 May–1 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.3182/20120531-2-NO-4020.00033.
Catinaccio, A. 2009. Pipes Under Internal Pressure and Bending. CERN Technical Note, PH-EP-Tech-Note-2009-004.
Cayeux, E. 2012. Safe Mud Pump Management while Conditioning Mud. Oral presentation given at the 2012 IFAC Workshop on Automatic Control in Offshore Oil and Gas Production, Trondheim, Norway, May 31–June 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.3182/20120531-2-NO-4020.00018.
Cayeux, E. and Daireaux, B. 2012. From Machine Control to Drilling Control. Oral presentation given at I2MTC Conference, Graz, Austria, 13–16 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/I2MTC.2012.6229671.
Cayeux, E. and Lande, H. P. 2013. Factors Influencing the Estimation of Downhole Pressure far Away From Measurement Points During Drilling Operations. Oral presentation given the SIMS 54th Conference, Bergen, Norway, 16–18 October.
Cayeux, E., Daireaux, B. and Dvergsnes, E. W. 2011a. Automation of Mud-Pump Management Application to Drilling Operations in the North-Sea. SPE Drill & Compl 26 (1): 41–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128285-PA.
Cayeux, E., Daireaux, B. and Dvergsnes, E. W. 2011b. Automation of Drawworks and Topdrive Management to Minimize Swab/Surge and Poor-Downhole-Condition Effects. SPE Drill & Compl 26 (4): 557–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128286-PA.
Cayeux, E., Mesagan, T., Tanripada, S., et al. 2013. Real-Time Evaluation of Hole Cleaning Conditions Using a Transient Cuttings Transport Model. Paper SPE 163492 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 5–7 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163492-MS.
Corre, B., Eymard, R. and Guenot, A., 1984. Numerical Computation of Temperature Distribution in Wellbore While Drilling. Paper SPE 13208 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 16–19 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13208-MS.
Einstein, A. 1906. Eine Neue Bestimmung Der Moleküldimensionen. Annalen Der Physik 324 (2): 289–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19063240204.
Fjelde, K.K., Rommetveit, R., Merlo, A., et al. 2003. Improvements in Dynamic Modeling of Underbalanced Drilling. Paper SPE/IADC 81636 presented at the Underbalanced Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 25–26 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81636-MS.
Florence, F. and Iversen, F. 2010. Real-Time Models for Drilling Process Automation: Equations and Applications. Paper SPE/IADC 128958 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Lousiania, 2–4 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128958-MS.
Florence, F. and Burks, J. 2012. New Surface and Down-Hole Sensors Needed for Oil and Gas Drilling. Oral presentation given at the I2MTC conference, Graz, Austria, May 13–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/I2MTC.2012.6229568.
Fossli, B. and Sjoerd, H. 2008. New Generation Drillship and Drilling System Enables More-Efficient Deepwater Operations. Paper SPE 112388 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Orlando, Florida, 4–6 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112388-MS.
Godhavn, J.M. 2010. Control Requirements for Automatic Managed Pressure Drilling System. SPE Drill & Compl 25 (3): 336–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119442-PA.
Gonzalez, L., Valverde, E., Odell, A., et al. 2011. RFID Provides Multiple On Demand Activation/Deactivation Reliability to Underreaming. Paper SPE 146033 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October–2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146033-MS.
Hinton, A. 2009. A New Chapter in MPD: Subsea Pumping. Paper SPE 122201 presented at the IADC/SPE Managed Pressure Drilling and Underbalanced Operations Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 12–13 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122201-MS.
Houwen, O.H. and Geehan, T. 1986. Rheology of Oil-Based Muds. Paper SPE 15416 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15416-MS.
Iversen, F., Cayeux, E., Dvergsnes, E.W., et al. 2009. Offshore Field Test of a New System for Model Integrated Closed-Loop Drilling Control. SPE Drill & Compl 24 (4): 518–530. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112744-PA.
Jellison, M., Hall, D.R., Howard, D.C., et al. 2003. Telemetry Drill Pipe: Enabling Technology for the Downhole Internet. Paper SPE 79885 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 19–21 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79885-MS.
Kaasa, G.O., Stamnes, Ø., Imsland, L., et al. 2012. Simplified Hydraulics Model Used for Intelligent Estimation of Downhole Pressure for a Managed-Pressure-Drilling Control System. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (1): 127–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143097-PA.
Lage, A., Fjelde, K. and Time, R. 2003. Underbalanced Drilling Dynamics: Two Phase Flow Modelling and Experiments. SPE J. 8 (1): 61–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/83607-PA.
Larsen, H.F., Alfsen, T. E., Kvalsund, R., et al. 2010. The Automated Drilling Pilot on Statfjord C. Paper SPE/IADC 128234 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2–4 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128234-MS.
Lesso, B., Ignova, M., Zeineddine, F., et al. 2011. Testing the Combination of High Frequency Surface and Downhole Drilling Mechanics and Dynamics Data under a Variety of Drilling Conditions. Paper SPE 140347 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1–3 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140347-MS.
Marshall, D.W. and Bentsen, R.G. 1982. A Computer Model to Determine the Temperature Distributions in a Wellbore. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 21 (1): 63–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/82-01-05.
Mason, C. and Chen, D. 2007. Step Changes Needed To Modernise T&D Software. Paper SPE 104609 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 20–22 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/104609-MS.
Menand, S., Sellami, H., Tijani, M., et al. 2006. Advancements in 3D Drillstring Mechanics: From the Bit to the Topdrive. Paper SPE 98965 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Miami, Florida, 21–23 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98965-MS.
Mitchell, R.F. 2009. Fluid Momentum Balance Defines the Effective Force. Paper SPE 119954 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 17–19 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119954-MS.
Mitchell, R.F. 1996. Forces on Curved Tubulars caused by Fluid Flow. SPE Prod & Fac 11 (1): 30–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25500-PA.
Pink, T., Harrell, L., Perez, D., et al. 2011. Integrated Drilling Optimization and Downhole Drilling Dynamics Enables PDC Bits to Drill in the Colorado Region of the San Juan Unconventional Gas Basin. Paper SPE 139848 presented at the SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1–3 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139848-MS.
Porche, M. and Houchins, R. 2006. Calculating Hook Load from Deadline Tension. NOV M/D Totco White Paper.
Reeves, M.E., Camwell, P.L. and McRory, J. 2011. High Speed Acoustic Telemetry Network Enables Real-Time Along String Measurements, Greatly Reducing Drilling Risk. Paper SPE 145566 presented at Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, UK, 6–8 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145566-MS.
Robertson, R.E. and Stiff, H.A. Jr. 1976. An Improved Mathematical Model for Relating Shear Stress to Shear Rate in Drilling Fluids. SPE J. 16 (1): 31–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5333-PA.
Stave, R., Farestveit, R., Høyland, S., et al. 2005. Demonstration and Qualification of a Riserless Dual Gradient System. Paper OTC 17665 presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 2–5 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/17665-MS.
Saasen, A., Omland, T.H., Ekrene, S., et al. 2009. Automatic Measurement of Drilling Fluid and Drill-Cuttings Properties. SPE Drill & Compl 24 (4): 611–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112687-PA.
Torvestad, B. T., Bjoerneli, H. M., Toerge, K., et al. 2013. Industry’s first Hydro-Mechanical Surface Controlled system for Multiple Reamer Activation/Deactivation Increases Drilling Efficiency. Paper SPE/IADC 163537 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 5–7 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163537-MS.
Udegbunam, J. E., Aadnøy, B. S. and Fjelde, K. K. 2013. Uncertainty Evaluation of Wellbore Stability Model Predictions. Paper SPE/IADC 166788 presented at the SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 7–9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166788-MS.
Wylie, R., Standefer, J., Anderson, J., et al. 2013. Instrumented Internal Blowout Preventer Improves Measurements for Drilling and Equipment Optimization. Paper SPE/IADC 163475 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 5–7 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163475-MS.
Yilmaz, F. and Gundogdu, M.Y. 2008. A Critical Review on Blood Flow in Large Arteries; Relevance to Blood Rheology, Viscosity Models, and Physiologic Conditions. Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 20 (4): 197–211.