Comparing Soft-String and Stiff-String Methods Used to Compute Casing Centralization
- Lidia Gorokhova (Schlumberger) | Andrew J. Parry (Schlumberger) | Nicolas C. Flamant (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- February 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 106 - 114
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.6 Drilling Operations
- soft-string, stiff-string, centralization, modeling, cementing
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 887 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Good casing centralization during cementing operations is a key factor for achieving proper mud displacement and obtaining hydraulic isolation in the annulus. To this end, centralizers are often placed along the casing to position it centrally in the borehole. The optimal number of centralizers and their spacing is determined with simulation software. Until now, the industry has typically used calculation methods derived from API SPEC 10D to predict casing eccentricity in the wellbore. The calculations are based on an analytical soft-string method, which models an element of casing string between two centralizers as a bi-fixed beam. However, in drilling operations, the use of a numerical stiff-string method to compute torque-and-drag forces is now becoming widespread. It accounts for tubular bending stiffness and provides a more realistic analysis of the stresses and loads acting upon the drillstring and the borehole. The stiff-string technique based on the finite-element method is thus proposed as an alternate and more effective solution for computing casing centralization for cementing operations. Measured and calculated casing centralizations were compared in several field cases. The casing eccentricity was measured after the cement placement using recently developed ultrasonic logging tools and diagnostics. Discrepancies between analytical and numerical calculation methods were analyzed, then advantages and disadvantages to each method were assessed. The results of the calculation methods were used to formulate an optimal approach to casing centralization.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Guillot, D.J., Froelich, B., Caceres, E. et al. 2008. Are Current Casing Centralization Calculations Really Conservative? Paper SPE/IADC 112725 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Orlando, Florida, 4–6 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112725-MS.
McSpadden, A.R., Coker, O.D., and Ruan, G.C. 2011. Advanced Casing Design With Finite-Element Model of Effective Dogleg Severity, Radial Displacements, and Bending Loads. Paper SPE 141458 presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 27–29 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141458-MS.
Przemieniecki, J.S. 1985. Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, second edition, Chapters 5, 6. New York: Dover Publications.
Rezmer-Cooper, I., Chau, M., Hendricks, M. et al. 1999. Field Data Support the Use of Stiffness and Tortuosity in Solving Complex Well-Design Problems. Paper SPE/IADC 52819 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, 9–11 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/52819-MS.
Samuel, R. 2010. Friction Factors: What Are They for Torque, Drag, Vibration, Bottomhole Assembly and Transient Surge/Swab Analyses? Paper SPE/IADC 128059 presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2–4 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128059-MS.
Spec. 10D/ISO 10427-1. Specification for Bow-Spring Casing Centralizers, sixth edition. 2002. Washington, DC: API.
Spec. 10D/ISO 10427-2. RP for Centralizer Placement and Stop Collar Testing, first edition. 2004. Washington, DC: API.
Van Kuijk, R., Zeroug, S., Froelich, B. et al. 2005. A Novel Ultrasonic Cased-Hole Imager for Enhanced Cement Evaluation. Paper IPTC 10546 presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 21–23 November.
Weaver, W. and Gere, J. 1980. Matrix Analysis of Framed Structures. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.