- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Empirical Prediction of Carbon-Steel Degradation Rates on an Offshore Oil and Gas Facility: Predicting CO2 Erosion-Corrosion Pipeline Failures Before They Occur
- Richard J. Barker (University of Leeds) | Xinming Hu (Wood Group Integrity Management) | Anne Neville (University of Leeds) | Susan Cushnaghan (Shell U.K. Limited)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 425 - 436
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 245 since 2007
- Show more detail
Various sections of carbon-steel pipework removed from an offshore facility were found to have experienced severe degradation, partly attributed to an insufficient inhibitor dose rate, as discussed in a previous case study (Hu etal. 2011b). An investigation was conducted to compare the predictive capability of an empirical model generated with data from a submerged-impinging-jet laboratory apparatus. The model was assessed in its ability to determine the rate of thickness loss for carbon-steel pipework subjected to a CO2-containing erosion-corrosion environment, reviewing to what extent the prediction agrees with inspection data. The investigation considers whether the developed tool could have predicted pipework failures on the facility, comparing it with the degradation rate calculated from a leak that occurred within the past 2 years. The program of experiments set out to create a means of prediction with the material-loss data from submerged-impinging-jet tests over a range of conditions replicating those within the line. Information pertaining to the temperature, production rate, and sand loading was collated for the offshore facility. These data were used along with mass-loss results to predict the degradation rate on the asset as a function of time over a 5-year period. This in turn was used to predict the total thickness loss of the pipework wall as a function of time. Consideration was also given to the current use of inhibition (10 ppm Inhibitor A) as well as the predicted thickness losses as a function of time had a candidate inhibitor been used instead (50 ppm Inhibitor B). Limitations of the model are presented, along with suggestions for ways to develop the model further.
Al-Mutahar, F. M., Roberts, K. P., Shirazi, S. A., et al. 2012. Modeling andExperiments of FeCO3 Scale Growth and Removal for Erosion-CorrosionConditions. In CORROSION 2012. Salt Lake City, Utah: NACEInternational.
Chen, X., McLaury, B. S., and Shirazi, S. A. 2006. Numerical andExperimental Investigation of the Relative Erosion Severity Between PluggedTees and Elbows in Dilute Gas/Solid Two-Phase Flow. Wear 261 (7-8): 715-729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2006.01.022.
Dave, K., Roberts, K. P., Shadley, J. R., et al. 2008. Effect of a CorrosionInhibitor for Oil and Gas Wells When Sand is Produced. In CORROSION2008. New Orleans, Louisiana: NACE International.
de Waard, C. and Lotz, U. 1993. Prediction of CO2 Corrosion ofCarbon Steel. In CORROSION 93. Houston, Texas: NACE International.
de Waard, C., Lotz, U., and Dugstad, A. 1995. Influence of Liquid FlowVelocity on CO2 Corrosion: A Semi-Empirical Model. In CORROSION95. Orlando, Florida: NACE International.
de Waard, C. and Milliams, D. E. 1975. Carbonic Acid Corrosion of Steel.Corros. Sci. 31 (5): 131-135.
de Waard, C., Milliams, D. E., and Lotz, U. 1991. Predictive Model forCO2 Corrosion Engineering in Wet Natural Gas Pipelines. InCORROSION 91. Houston, Texas: NACE International.
de Waard, C., Smith, L., and Craig, B. D. 2003. The Influence of Crude Oilson Well Tubing Corrosion Rates. In CORROSION 2003. San Diego,California: NACE International.
Efird, K. D. 2000. Jet Impingement Testing for Flow Accelerated Corrosion.In CORROSION 2000. Orlando, Florida: NACE International.
Efird, K. D., 2006. Flow Accelerated Corrosion Testing Basics. InCORROSION 2006. San Diego, California: NACE International.
Efird, K. D., Boros, J. A., Hailey, T. G., et al. 1993. Correlation of SteelCorrosion in Pipe Flow with Jet Impingement and Rotating Cylinder Tests.Corrosion 49 (12): 992-1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.5006/1.3316026.
Gnanavelu, A., Kapur, N., Neville, A., et al. 2009. An IntegratedMethodology for Predicting Material Wear Rates due to Erosion. Wear 267 (11): 1935-1944. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2009.05.001.
Halvorsen, A. M. and Søntvedt, T. 1999. CO2 Corrosion Model forCarbon Steel Including Wall Shear Stress Model for Multiphase Flow and Limitsfor Production Rate to Avoid Mesa Attack. In CORROSION 99. San Antonio,Texas: NACE International.
Hassani, S., Roberts, K. P., Shirazi, S. A., et al. 2012. Characterizationand Prediction of Chemical Inhibition Performance for Erosion-CorrosionConditions in Sweet Oil and Gas Production. In CORROSION 2012. Salt LakeCity, Utah: NACE International.
Hecht, A., 1997. Time of Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) - An UltrasonicTesting Method for all Applications?http://www.ndt.net/article/tofd/hecht/hecht.htm (downloaded 24 July 2012).
Hu, X., Alzawai, K., Gnanavelu, A., et al. 2011a. Assessing the Effect ofCorrosion Inhibitor on Erosion-Corrosion of API-5L-X65 in Multi-Phase JetImpingement Conditions. Wear 271 (9-10): 1432-1437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2010.12.069.
Hu, X., Barker, R., Neville, A., et al. 2011b. Case Study onErosion-Corrosion Degradation of Pipework Located on an Offshore Oil and GasFacility. Wear 271 (9-10): 1295-1301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2011.01.036.
Hu, X., Neville, A., Wells, J., and Souza, V. D. 2008. Prediction ofErosion-Corrosion in Oil and Gas - A Systematic Approach. In CORROSION2008. New Orleans, Louisiana: NACE International.
Keating, A. and Nesic, S. 2000. Numerical Prediction of Erosion-Corrosion inBends. In CORROSION 2000. Orlando, Florida: NACE International.
Kermani, M. B. and Morshed, A. 2003. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion in Oil and GasProduction-A Compendium. Corros. Sci. 59 (8): 659-683. http://dx.doi.org/10.5006/1.3277596.
Mazumder, Q. H., Shirazi, S. A., McLaury, B. S., et al. 2005. Developmentand Validation of a Mechanistic Model to Predict Solid Particle Erosion inMultiphase Flow. Wear 259 (1-6): 203-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2005.02.109.
McLaury, B. S. and Shirazi, S. A. 2000. An Alternate Method toAPI RP 14E for Predicting Solids Erosion in Multiphase Flow. J. EnergyResour. Technol. 122 (3): 115-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.1288209.
Mishra, B., Al-Hassan, S., Olson, D. L., et al. 1997. Development of aPredictive Model for Activation-Controlled Corrosion of Steel in SolutionsContaining Carbon Dioxide. Corros. Sci. 53 (11): 852-859.http://dx.doi.org/10.5006/1.3290270.
Nesic, S., Drazic, D., Thevenot, N., et al. 1996a. ElectrochemicalProperties of Iron Dissolution in the Presence of CO2 - BasicsRevisited. In CORROSION 96. Denver, Colorado: NACE International.
Nesic, S., Postlethwaite, J., and Olsen, S. 1996b. An Electrochemical Modelfor Prediction of Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Carbon Dioxide Solutions.Corros. Sci. 52 (4): 280-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.5006/1.3293640.
Nordsveen, M., Nyborg, S. N. R., and Stangeland, A. 2003. A MechanisticModel for Carbon Dioxide Corrosion of Mild Steel in the Presence of ProtectiveIron Carbonate Films—Part 1: Theory and Verification. Corrosion 59 (5): 443-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.5006/1.3277592.
Norsok Standard M-506. 2005. CO2 Corrosion Rate CalculationModel, http://www.standard.no/PageFiles/1178/M-506d1r2.pdf (downloaded 6September 2011).
Olsen, S., Nyborg, R., Lunde, P. G., et al. 2005. CO2 CorrosionPrediction Model—Basic Principles. In CORROSION 2005. Houston, Texas:NACE International.
Salama, M. M. 2000. Sand Production Management. J. EnergyResour. Technol. 122 (1): 29-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.483158.
Shadley, J. R., Shirazi, S. A., Dayalan, E., et al. 1996. Erosion-Corrosionof a Carbon Steel Elbow in a Carbon Dioxide Environment. Corrosion 52 (9): 714-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.5006/1.3292162.
Stack, M. M., Abdelrahman, S. M., and Jana, B. D. 2010. A New Methodologyfor Modelling Erosion-Corrosion Regimes on Real Surfaces: Gliding Down theGalvanic Series for a Range of Metal-Corrosion Systems. Wear 268 (3-4): 533-542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2009.09.013.
Stack, M. M. and Abdulrahmen, G. H. 2010. Mapping Erosion-Corrosion ofCarbon Steel in Oil Exploration Conditions: Some New Approaches toCharacterizing Mechanisms and Synergies. Tribol. Int. 43(7): 1268-1277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2010.01.005.
Turgoose, S., Cottis, R., and Lawson, K., 1990. Modelling of ElectrodeProcesses and Surface Chemistry in Carbon Dioxide Containing Solutions. InASTM Symposium on Computer Modelling of Corrosion. San Antonio, Texas:NACE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/STP24687S.
Wang, C. and Neville, A. 2009. Study of the Effect of Inhibitors onErosion-Corrosion in CO2-Saturated Condition with Sand. SPE ProjFac & Const 4 (1): 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114081-PA.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.