A New Thermogeomechanical Theory for Gravity Drainage in Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage
- Marya Cokar (University of Calgary) | Ian D. Gates (University of Calgary) | Michael S. Kallos (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 736 - 742
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.1.10 Reservoir geomechanics, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 489 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Oil-sands reservoirs in western Canada hold more than 170 billion bbl of recoverable heavy oil and bitumen representing a significant source of unconventional oil. At in-situ conditions, the majority of this oil has essentially no initial mobility because of its high viscosity, which is typically in the hundreds of thousands to millions of centipoises. In steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), steam injected into the formation heats oil at the edge of a depletion chamber, thus raising the mobility, ko /µo , of bitumen. Three main effects account for the increase of oil mobility. First, bitumen at steam temperature has viscosity typically less than 20 cp. Second, it is believed that shear, which is caused by thermal-expansion gradients, dilates the oil sand and causes enhanced permeability. Third, dilation at the chamber edge leads to smaller residual oil saturation (ROS). Because the production rate of SAGD is directly tied to the drainage rate of mobilized oil at the chamber edge, the thermogeomechanics of the oil sand at the chamber edge is a control on the performance of SAGD. In this study, a novel SAGD formula is derived that accounts for thermogeomechanical effects at the edge of the chamber. This paper couples dilation effects arising from thermal expansion into an analytical model for SAGD oil rate. The results reveal that volumetric expansion at the edge of the chamber plays a significant role in enabling effective drainage of bitumen to the production well.
|File Size||486 KB||Number of Pages||7|
Akin, S. 2005. Mathematical Modeling of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage.SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (5): 372-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86963-PA.
Azad, A. and Chalaturnyk, R.J. 2009. Geomechanical Coupling Simulationin SAGD Process: A Linear Geometry Model. Paper presented at the 3rd Canada-US(CANUS) Rock Mechanics Symposium and 20th Canadian Rock Mechanics Symposium,Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions, Toronto, Canada, 9-14 May.
Butler, R.M. 1991. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. GravDrainInc., Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Prentice Hall.
Butler, R.M. and Stephens, D.J. 1981. The Gravity Drainage of Steam-HeatedHeavy Oil to Parallel Horizontal Wells. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 20 (2): 90-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81-02-07.
Collins, P.M. 2002. Injection Pressures for Geomechanical Enhancements ofRecovery Processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands. Paper SPE79028 presented at theSPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and InternationalHorizontal Well Technology Conference. Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 4-7 November.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79028-MS.
Ferguson, F.R.S. and Butler, R.M. 1988. Steam-Assisted Gravity DrainageModel Incorporating Energy Recovery from a Cooling Steam Chamber. J. Cdn.Pet. Tech. 27 (5): 75-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88-05-09.
Gates, I.D., Adams, J.J., and Larter, S.R. 2008. The Impact of Oil ViscosityHeterogeneity on the Production Characteristics of Tar Sand and Heavy-OilReservoirs. Part II: Intelligent, Geotailored Recovery Processes inCompositionally Graded Reservoirs. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 47 (9):40-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/08-09-40.
Gates, I.D. and Chakrabarty, N. 2006. Optimization of Steam-Assisted GravityDrainage (SAGD) in Ideal McMurray Reservoir. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 45 (9): 54-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/06-09-05.
Ito, Y., Hirata, T., and Ichikawa, M. 2001a. The Effect of OperatingPressure on the Growth of the Steam Chamber Detected at the Hangingstone SAGDProject. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 43 (1): 47-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/04-01-05.
Ito, Y., Ichikawa, M., and Hirata, T. 2001b. The Growth of the Steam ChamberDuring the Early Period of the UTF P hase B and Phase I Projects. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. 40 (9): 29-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/01-09-02.
Li, P. and Chalaturnyk, R.J. 2006. Permeability Variations Associated WithShearing and Isotropic Unloading During the SAGD Process. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech 45 (1): 54-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/06-01-05.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1986. Viscosity of Compressed AthabascaBitumen. Cdn. J. Chem. Eng. 64 (5): 844-847. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450640520.
Redford, D.A. 1985. A New Approach to the Modeling of Steam-Assisted GravityDrainage. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 24 (3): 42-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/85-03-02.
Reis, J.C. 1992. A Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Model for Tar Sands:Linear Geometry. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 31 (10): 14-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92-10-01.
Reis, J.C. 1993. A Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Model for Tar Sands:Radial Geometry. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 32 (8): 43-48.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93-08-05.
Sharma, J. and Gates I.D. 2010. Multiphase Flow at the Edge of a SteamChamber. Cdn. J. Chem. Eng. 88 (3): 312-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.20280.
Wong, R.- and Li, Y. 2001. A Deformation-Dependent Model for PermeabilityChanges in oil Sand Due to Shear Dilation. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 40 (8): 37-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/01-08-03.