Optimization of Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery: Balancing Sweep and Injectivity
- Maryam Namdar Zanganeh (Xodus Group B.V.) | William Rossen (Delft University of Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- January 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 51 - 59
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant)
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 1,227 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Foam is a means of improving sweep efficiency that reduces the gas mobility by capturing gas in foam bubbles and hindering its movement. Foam enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) techniques are relatively expensive; hence, it is important to optimize their performance. We present a case study on the conflict between mobility control and injectivity in optimizing oil recovery in a foam EOR process in a simple 3D reservoir with constrained injection and production pressures. Specifically, we examine a surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) process in which the surfactant-slug size is optimized. The maximum oil recovery is obtained with a surfactant slug just sufficient to advance the foam front just short of the production well. In other words, the reservoir is partially unswept by foam at the optimum surfactant-slug size. If a larger surfactant slug is used and the foam front breaks through to the production well, productivity index (PI) is seriously reduced and oil recovery is less than optimal: The benefit of sweeping the far corners of the pattern does not compensate for the harm to PI. A similar effect occurs near the injection well: Small surfactant slugs harm injectivity with little or no benefit to sweep. Larger slugs give better sweep with only a modest decrease in injectivity until the foam front approaches the production well. In some cases, SAG is inferior to gasflood (Namdar Zanganeh 2011).
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Apaydin, O.G. and Kovscek, A.R. 2000. Transient Foam Flow in HomogeneousPorous Media: Surfactant Concentration and Capillary End Effects. Paper SPE59286 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa,Oklahoma, 3-5 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59286-MS.
Awan, A.R., Teigland, R., and Kleppe, J. 2008. A Survey of North SeaEnhanced-Oil-Recovery Projects Initiated During the Years 1975-2005. SPE ResEval & Eng 11 (3): 497-512. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99546-PA.
Bond, D.C. and Holbrook, C.C. 1958. Gas Drive Oil Recovery Process. USPatent No. 2,866,507.
Cheng, L. 2002. Modeling and Simulation Studies of Foam Processes inImproved Oil Recovery and Acid-Diversions. PhD dissertation, University ofTexas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Cheng, L., Reme, A.B., Shan, D., et al. 2000. Simulating Foam Processes atHigh and Low Foam Qualities. Paper SPE 59287 presented at the SPE/DOE ImprovedOil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 3-5 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59287-MS.
Dake, L.P. 1978. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering. Amsterdam,The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Hoefner, M.L. and Evans, E. M. 1995. CO2 Foam: Results from FourDevelopment Field Trials. SPE Res Eng 10 (4): 273-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27787-PA.
Khatib, Z.I., Hirasaki, G.J., and Falls, A.H. 1988. Effects of CapillaryPressure on Coalescence and Phase Mobilities in Foams Flowing Through PorousMedia. SPE Res Eng 3 (3): 919-926. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15442-PA.
Lake, L. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice Hall.
Mannhardt, K. and Svorstøl, I. 1999. Effect of Oil Saturation on FoamPropagation in Snorre Reservoir Core. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 23(3-4): 189-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(99)00016-9.
Masalmeh, S.K. and Wei, L. 2010. Impact of Relative Permeability Hysteresis,IFT Dependent and Three Phase Models on the Performance of Gas Based EORProcesses. Paper SPE 138203 presented at the Abu Dhabi International PetroleumExhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 1-4 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138203-MS.
Namdar Zanganeh, M. 2011. Simulation and Optimization of Foam EOR Processes.PhD dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands (July2011).
Namdar Zanganeh, M., Kam, S.I., LaForce, T.C., et al. 2011. The Method ofCharacteristics Applied to Oil Displacement by Foam. SPE J. 16(1): 82-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121580-PA.
Patzek, T. W. 1996. Field Applications of Steam Foam for MobilityImprovement and Profile Control. SPE Res Eng 11 (2). 79-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29612-PA.
Rossen, W.R. 1996. Foams: Theory, Measurement, and Applications. In Foamsin Enhanced Oil Recovery, ed. R.K. Prud'homme and S. Khan, Chapter 11,413-464. New York City: Marcel Dekker.
Rossen, W.R. and Zhou, Z.H. 1995. Modeling Foam Mobility at the LimitingCapillary Pressure. SPE Advanced Technology Series 3 (1):146-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22627-PA.
Rossen, W.R., Zeilinger, S.C., Shi, J.-X., et al. 1999. SimplifiedMechanistic Simulation of Foam Processes in Porous Media. SPE J.4 (3): 279-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57678-PA.
Schramm, L.L. ed. 1994. Foams: Fundamentals and Applications in thePetroleum Industry. Washington DC: Advances in Chemistry Series, AmericanChemical Society.
Shan, D. and Rossen, W.R. 2004. Optimal Injection Strategies for Foam IOR.SPE J. 9 (2): 132-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88811-PA.
STARS Reservoir Simulator, Version 2009 User Guide. 2009. Calgary, Alberta:Computer Modeling Group.
Surguchev, L.M., Coombe, D.A., Hanssen, J.E., et al. 1995. Simulation of WAGand Gas Injection with Potential Sweep Improvement by Application of Foam.Proc., Eighth European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Vienna, Austria,15-17 May, Vol. 1: 318-330.
Svorstøl, I., Vassenden, F., and Mannhardt, K. 1996. Laboratory Studies forDesign of a Foam Pilot in the Snorre Field. Paper SPE 35400 presented at theSPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 21-24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35400-MS.
Turta, A. T. and Singhal, A. K. 1998. Field Foam Applications in EnhancedOil Recovery Projects: Screening and Design Aspects. Paper SPE 48895 presentedat the International Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, 2-6 November.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/48895-MS.
Vassenden, F. and Holt, T. 2000. Experimental Foundation for RelativePermeability Modeling of Foam. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3(2): 179-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62506-PA.