Environmental Safety Assessment of Drilling Operations in the Marcellus-Shale Gas Development
- Richard Olawoyin (Pennsylvania State University) | John Y. Wang (Pennsylvania State University) | Samuel A. Oyewole (Pennsylvania State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 212 - 220
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 6.5.5 Oil and Chemical Spills
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 720 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The process of gas development is intensive and involves risk to theenvironment. Statistics confirm that 0.5 to 1% of wells drilled result in ablowout. Causes of these exploration risks are identified as violations ofenvironmental laws enforced by the Pennsylvania Department of EnvironmentalProtections (DEP), operational pollution (accidental spills and leaks), andoperator's policy. In addressing this concern, a risk-assessment methodologywas used to evaluate all violations by operators in the State of Pennsylvaniafrom January 2008 to November 2010, by use of Statistical Analysis Software(SAS). The most significant causes of environmental damage and risk weredetermined by use of the doubly repeated measure analysis of covariance(ANCOVA). The category effect and interaction effect were used to prove theusefulness of the developed model, which helps explain the safety level of thelocality. There were a total of 2,601 violations between 2008 and 2010committed by 65 different operators in the Marcellus Shale, out of which only27 of the operators showed significance difference based on environmentallydamaging violations (ranked 5 to 10). A statistical comparison was made tounderstand the difference between the operators based on the 2,601 totalviolations. The most significant incidents are ranked [on the basis of Bordacount (Saari 1985)] 3, 5, 9, 10, which accounts for 67% of all the violations.These data reflect several environmental concerns that are currently prevalentin the Marcellus-shale area. This research identifies environmental incidents,causes and effects of exploration risk, and safety impediments in the Marcellusgas play. It also presents guidelines for feasible options to minimizeenvironmental risks and consequently increase the degree of safety in the area.Recommendations on how to mitigate these impending problems are presented.
|File Size||658 KB||Number of Pages||9|
American Petroleum Institute. 2010. Hydraulic fracturing. http://www.api.org/policy-and-issues/hf.aspx.
Arthur, J.D., Bohm, B., and Layne, M. 2008. Hydraulic FracturingConsiderations for Natural Gas Wells of the Marcellus Shale. Paper presented atthe Groundwater Protection Council Annual Forum, Cincinnati, Ohio, 21-24September 2008. Oklahoma City: Ground Water Protection Council.
Chesapeake Energy. 2009. Hydraulic Fracturing Fact Sheet.http://www.chk.com/Media/Pages/Default.aspx.
Clark, B.M. 2002. Dirty Drilling: The Threat of Oil and Gas Drilling in LakeErie. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Public Interest Research Group Education Fund.
Clark, J.B. 1949. A Hydraulic Process for Increasing the Productivity ofWells. J Pet Tech 1 (1): 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/949001-G.
Durham, L.S. 2008. Appalachian Basin's Marcellus--The New Target: AnotherShale Making Seismic Waves. American Association of Petroleum Geologists(AAPG).http://www.aapg.org/explorer/2008/03mar/Marcellus.cfm.
Ground Water ProtectionCouncil 2009. Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: APrimer. Report prepared for the US Department of Energy, National EnergyTechnology Laboratory (NETL) with ALL Consulting, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Ground Water Protection Council and ALL Consulting. 2010. ThePennsylvania Environmental Council's Developing the Marcellus Shale:Environmental Policy and Planning Recommendations for the Development of theMarcellus Shale Play in Pennsylvania, 43-77. Pennsylvania EnvironmentalCouncil.
Haines, L. 2006. "Shale Gas," A Supplement to Oil and Gas Investor.Houston, Texas: Oil and Gas Investor/Hart Energy Publishing, LP. http://www.oilandgasinvestor.com/pdf/ShaleGas.pdf.
Mayhood, K. 2008. Low Down, Rich and Stingy. http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/science/2008/03/11/Sci_shale.ART_ART_03-11-08_B4_A99I7HO.html(11 March 2008).
Neff, J.M., Rabalais, N.N., and Boesch, D.F. 1987. Offshore Oil and GasDevelopment Activities Potentially Causing Long-Term Environmental Effects. InLong-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development, ed.D.F. Boesch and N.N. Rabalais, chapter 4, 149-174. London, UK: Elsevier AppliedScience.
Saari, D.G. 1985. The Optimal Ranking Method Is the Borda Count, No 638,Discussion Papers, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies inEconomics and Management Science.
Stanislav, P. 2008. Waste Discharges During the Offshore Oil and GasActivity, based on Environmental Impact of the Offshore Oil and GasIndustry. East Northport, New York: EcoMonitor Publishing.
Stanislav, P. and Cleveland, C.J. 2008. Oil Spill. In Encyclopedia ofEarth, ed. C.J. Cleveland. Washington, DC: Environmental InformationCoalition, National Council for Science and the Environment.
US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, and National EnergyTechnology Laboratory. 2009. Environmental Considerations. In GroundwaterProtection Council and ALL Consulting Modern Shale Gas Development in theUnited States: A Primer.