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Definitive Petrophysical Evaluation of Thin Hydrocarbon Reservoir Sequences
- Azlan A. Majid (Gaffney, Cline & Associates) | Paul F. Worthington (Gaffney, Cline & Associates)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 584 - 595
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 732 since 2007
- Show more detail
The petrophysical evaluation of thinly-bedded sand/shale sequences is strongly dependent on the way in which layered and dispersed shales are taken into account. There are two underpinning issues: the recognition of thin bed geometries and the estimation of shale content from lithology logs. The first of these is managed through a scenario approach, whereby different downhole scenarios are set out according to specified ranges of bed thickness. Each range has its own interpretation protocol. The second issue relates to the inherent overestimation of clay-mineral volume fraction by shale indicators and its impact on the petrophysical evaluation of thinly-bedded sand porosity. This shortcoming is managed by applying a validated scaling factor to log-derived estimates of shale volume fraction so that these become workable estimates of clay-mineral fraction for the porosity evaluation of sand layers. Both these problems become more acute for thinner beds. These two key issues are addressed conjunctively through interpretive workflows, each of which relates to a discrete range of bed thickness and uses fit-for-purpose petrophysical data sets. In particular, the multicomponent induction log is adopted as a pivotal technology for the evaluation of sand resistivity within thinly-bedded sand/shale sequences. The objective is to achieve a sound petrophysical interpretation for each downhole situation. Therefore, groundtruthing through core data is advocated where this allows the shale problem to be managed better. The outcome is a systematic approach to thin-bed evaluation, based on prescribed data inputs that optimize project effectiveness. The benefits are illustrated through case histories that demonstrate a securable upside in projected hydrocarbon volumes.
Archie, G.E. 1942. The Electrical Resistivity Log as an Aid in DeterminingSome Reservoir Characteristics. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. & Metall. Eng. 146 (1): 54-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/942054-G.
Bardon, C., and Pied, B. 1969. Formation Water Saturation in Shaly Sands. InTransactions of the SPWLA 10th Annual Logging Symposium, 25-28 May 1969,Houston, Texas, Z1-19, Houston, Texas: Society of Petrophysicists and WellLog Analysts.
Bootle, R., Waugh, M., Bittar, M., et al. 2009. Laminated Sand-ShaleFormation Evaluation Using Azimuthal LWD Resistivity. SPE Paper 123890presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans,Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/123890-MS.
Capone, G., Malossi, A., Mele, M., et al. 2010. Integrated FormationEvaluation in an Anisotropic Reservoir Offshore Deep Water Indonesia Using aCombination of Image Logs, WFTs and Mini DSTs for Pay and HydrocarbonDefinition. SPE Paper 134076 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134076-MS.
Chu, W.-C., and Welch, P.M. 2008. Identification of Bypassed Pays inLow-Resistivity, Thinly Bedded, Sand-Shale Sequences in the Ghdames Basin ofNorth Africa Through Use of the Wireline Formation Tester. SPE Paper 114478presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 21-24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114478-MS.
Claverie, M., Aboel-Abbas, S., Harfoushian, H., et al. 2006. Methods forReal-Time and High-Resolution Formation Evaluation and Formation Testing ofThinly Bedded Reservoirs in Exploration Wells. SPE Paper 101126 presented atSPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Adelaide, Australia,11-13 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101126-MS.
Claverie, M., Hansen, S., Daungkaew, S., et al. 2007. Applications of NMRLogs and Borehole Images to the Evaluation of Laminated Deepwater Reservoirs.SPE Paper 110223 presented at the Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference andExhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 30 October-1 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110223-MS.
Fairhurst, D.L., Reynolds, B.W., Indriati, S., et al. 2006. OligoceneVicksburg Thin-Bed Production Optimization Derived From Oil-Based Mud Imaging:A Case Study. SPE Paper 99720 presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium,Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99720-MS.
Fanini, O.N., Kriegshäuser, B.F., Mollison, R.A., et al. 2001. Enhanced,Low-Resistivity Pay, Reservoir Exploration and Delineation With the LatestMulticomponent Induction Technology Integrated With NMR, Nuclear, and BoreholeImage Measurements. SPE Paper 69447 presented at the SPE Latin American andCaribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 25-28March 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/69447-MS.
Henderson, K., Rose, H., Winter, R. 2010. Identifying and QuantifyingThin-Bedded Pay (Part A): Log Characteristics and Reservoir Quality. SPE Paper133534 presented at the Trinidad and Tobago Energy Resources Conference, Portof Spain, Trinidad, 27-30 June 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133534-MS.
Juhasz, I. 1986. Assessment of the Distribution of Shale, Porosity andHydrocarbon Saturation in Shaly Sands. In Transactions of the SPWLA 10thAnnual Logging Symposium, 25-28 May 1969, Houston, Texas, AA1-15,Houston, Texas: Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts.
Kriegshäuser, B., Fanini, O., Forgang, S., et al. 2000. A NewMulti-Component Induction Logging Tool to Resolve Anisotropic Formations. InTransactions of the SPWLA 41st Annual Logging Symposium, 4-7 June 2000,Dallas, Texas, Houston, Texas: Society of Petrophysicists and Well LogAnalysts.
Kriegshäuser, B.F., Fanini, O.N., Yu, L., et al. 2001. Improved Shaly SandInterpretation in Highly Deviated and Horizontal Wells Using MulticomponentInduction Log Data. In Transactions of the SPWLA 42nd Annual LoggingSymposium,17-20 June 2001, Houston, Texas, S1-14, Houston, Texas: Societyof Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts.
Lofts, J., and Page, G. 2002. Defining Thin Beds and Improving Net Pay WithModern Logging and Core-Interpretation Techniques. In AAPG Methods inExploration: Geological Applications of Well Logs, ed. M. Lovell and N.Parkinson, vol. 13, 39-53. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of PetroleumGeologists.
Manescu, A., Kho, S-F., Ha, K.-T. 2010. Case Study of Improved Oil-In-PlaceDetermination From Petrophysical Evaluation of Resistivity Anisotropy LoggingData in a Malaysian Deepwater Turbidite Field. SPE Paper 133106 presented atthe SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Brisbane,Queensland, Australia, 18-20 October 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133106-MS.
Nashaat, M., Sallam, Y., Elsherif, A. 2001. Utilizing Magnetic ResonanceLogging for Improved Formation Evaluation in the Mediterranean Thinly LaminatedGas Bearing Formations: A Case Study. SPE Paper 71705 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 30September-3 October 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71705-MS.
Passey, Q.R., Dahlberg, K.E., Sullivan, K.B., et al. 2006. PetrophysicalEvaluation of Hydrocarbon Pore-Thickness in Thinly Bedded Clastic Reservoirs.AAPG Archie Series, No. 1. Tulsa, Oklahoma American Association ofPetroleum Geologists.
Poupon, A., and Leveaux, J. 1971. Evaluation of Water Saturation in ShalyFormations. Transactions of the SPWLA 12th Annual Logging Symposium,2-5 May 1971, Dallas, Texas, O1-2. Houston, Texas: Society ofPetrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (repr. SPWLA, 1982).
Ruhovets, N., and Fertl, W.H. 1981. Digital Shaly Sand Analysis Based onWaxman-Smits Model and Log-Derived Clay Typing. The Log Analyst 23 (3): 7-23.
Saxena, K., and Klimentos, T. 2004. Field-Study of Integrated FormationEvaluation in Thinly Laminated Reservoirs. In Transactions of the SPWLA 45thAnnual Logging Symposium, 6-9 June, 2004, Noordwijk, The Netherlands,SSS1-12, Houston, Texas: Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts.
Thomas, E.C., and Stieber, S.J. 1975. The Distribution of Shale inSandstones and Its Effect Upon Porosity. In Transactions of the SPWLA 16thAnnual Logging Symposium, 4-7 June 1975, New Orleans, Louisiana, T1-15,Houston, Texas: Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts.
Vielma, M., and Vandini, R. 2007. Hydrocarbon Reserves and ProductionIncrement in Laminated Sand/Shale Reservoir From 3D Resistivity Measurements,Image Logs, and Magnetic Resonance Technology. SPE Paper 107689 presented atthe Latin American & Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, BuenosAires, Argentina, 15-18 April 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/107689-MS.
Worthington, P.F. 2010a. A Road Map for the Identification and Recovery ofBy-Passed Pay. In Petroleum Geology: From Mature Basins to New Frontiers:Proceedings of the 7th Petroleum Geology Conference, 30 March-2 April2009, London, UK, ed. B.A. Vining and S.C. Pickering, Vol. 1, 453-462,London, UK: Geological Society of London.
Worthington, P.F. 2010b. Quality-Assured Evaluation of Effective PorosityUsing Fit-For-Purpose Estimates of Clay-Mineral Volume Fraction. J. Appl.Geophys. 71: 36-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2010.03.002.
Yadav, L., Dutta, T., Kundu, A., et al. 2010. A New Approach for theRealistic Evaluation of Very Thin Reservoirs of Krishna Godavari Basin, EastCoast, India. SPE Paper 132970 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil & GasConference and Exhibition, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 18-20 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132970-MS.
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