The Initial Startup Wave Velocity in Isothermal Pipeline With Compressible Gelled Crude Oil
- Guozhong Zhang (China University of Petroleum) | Wentao Xiao (China University of Petroleum) | Gang Liu (China University of Petroleum) | Hao Lan (Petrochina Pipeline R&D Center)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 418 - 424
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 189 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The results of pipe-flow experiments show that the advancement velocity ofpressure is considerably slower than the transient-pressure-wave velocityduring the startup of pipeline with compressible gelled crude oil underconstant flow rate. The startup wave velocity that dominates the advancementvelocity of pressure in pipeline with compressible gelled crude oil wasdescribed and explained, and the essential difference between the startup wavevelocity and the transient-pressure-wave velocity was also described in detail.The startup wave front marks the substantive commencement of breakdown of gelstructure, and also indicates when the flow rate starts to become stable in thepipeline segments passed through during startup under constant flow rate, so itis a crucial factor affecting the calculation of startup pressure. In thispaper, the efficient numerical formulas to compute the startup wave velocitywere deduced on the basis of the analysis of 1D flow of viscoplastic media inelastic pipeline. The reliability of the formulae was verified by the wellagreement between the calculated values and the results of pipeline startupexperiments carried out with the N-Y gelled crude oil. These formulasfacilitate scientific analysis for the safe and economical operation ofpipeline transporting waxy crude oil. During the initial startup of pipelinewith compressible gelled crude oil under constant flow rate, the startup wavevelocity is considerably slower than the transient-pressure-wave velocity,decreases with the increase of the propagation distance and the gel strength ofcrude oil, and increases with the increase of startup flow rate (the volumeelastic/plastic coefficient of gelled crude oil and the ratio of the wallthickness to the inside diameter of the pipeline). It is noticeable that theformulae deduced in this paper are not limited to the pipelines with gelledcrude oil. They are also applicable to most kinds of pipelines transportingcompressible viscoplastic fluid with strong structure.
|File Size||339 KB||Number of Pages||7|
Borghi, G.-P., Correra, S., Merlini, M. et al. 2003. Prediction and Scaleupof Waxy Oil Restart Behavior. Presented at the International Symposium onOilfield Chemistry, Houston, 5-7 February. SPE-80259-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80259-MS.
Cawkwell, M.G. and Charles, M.E. 1987. An Improved Model for Start-up ofPipelines Containing Gelled Crude Oil. The Journal of Pipelines 7 (1987): 41-52.
Chang, C., Nguyen, Q.D., and Rønningsen, H.P. 1999. Isothermal start-up ofpipeline transporting waxy crude oil. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech.87 (2-3): 127-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0377-0257(99)00059-2.
Davidson, M.R., Dzuy Nguyen, Q., Chang, C. et al. 2004. A model for restartof a pipeline with compressible gelled waxy crude oil. J. Non-NewtonianFluid Mech. 123 (2-3): 269-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2004.09.007.
Davidson, M.R., Nguyen, Q.D., and Rønningsen, H.P. 2007. Restart model for amulti-plug gelled waxy oil pipeline. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 59(1-2): 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.02.009.
Dong, P. 2005. Investigation on the Compressibility of Daqing Crude Oilat Low Temperature (in Chinese). MS thesis, Economic and TechnologicalDevelopment Zone, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, China (June2005).
Dong, P., Zhang, G., and Hu, X. 2005. A New Model to Characterize theThixotropy of Waxy Crude Oil (in Chinese). Oil and Gas Storage andTransportation 24 (2): 29-32.
Economides, M.J. and Chaney, G.T. Jr. 1983. The Rheological Properties ofPrudhoe Bay Oil and the Effects of a Prolonged Flow Interruption on Its FlowBehavior. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Ventura,California, USA, 23-25 March. SPE-11711-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11711-MS.
Frigaard, I., Vinay, G., and Wachs, A. 2007. Compressible displacement ofwaxy crude oils in long pipeline startup flows. J. Non-Newtonian FluidMech. 147 (1-2): 45-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2007.07.002.
Hénaut, I., Vincké, O., and Brucy, F. 1999. Waxy Crude Oil Restart:Mechanical Properties of Gelled Oils. Presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. SPE-56771-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56771-MS.
Lan, H. 2010. Study on the Yield Behavior and Pipeline Restart Process ofGelled Crude Oil (in Chinese). PhD dissertation, China University ofPetroleum (East China), Qingdao, China (June 2010).
Rønningsen, H.P. 1992. Rheological behavior of gelled, waxy North Sea crudeoils. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 7 (3-4): 177-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(92)90019-W.
Sestak, J., Charles, M.F., Cakewell, M.G. et al. 1987. Start-up of gelledcrude oil pipelines. The Journal of Pipelines 6 (1987):15-24.
Uhde, A. and Kopp, G. 1971. Pipelines Problems Resulting from the Handlingof Waxy Crude Oils. J. Inst. Pet. 57 (544):63-73.
Vinay, G., Wachs, A., and Agassant, J.-F. 2005. Numerical simulation ofnon-isothermal viscoplastic waxy crude oil flows. J. Non-Newtonian FluidMech. 128 (2-3): 144-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2005.04.005.
Vinay, G., Wachs, A., and Agassant, J.-F. 2006. Numerical simulation ofweakly compressible Bingham flows: The restart of pipeline flows of waxy crudeoils. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 136 (2-3): 93-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2006.03.003.
Vinay, G., Wachs, A., and Frigaard, I. 2007. Start-up transients andefficient computation of isothermal waxy crude oil flows. J. Non-NewtonianFluid Mech. 143 (2-3): 141-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2007.02.008.
Vinay, G., Wachs, A., and Frigaard, I. 2009. Start-up of Gelled Waxy CrudeOil Pipelines: A New Analytical Relation to Predict the Restart Pressure.Presented at the Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference & Exhibition, Jakarta,4-6 August. SPE-122443-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122443-MS.
Wachs, A., Vinay, G., and Frigaard, I. 2009. A 1.5D numerical model for thestart up of weakly compressible flow of a viscoplastic and thixotropic fluid inpipelines. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 159 (1-3): 81-94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2009.02.002.
Wardaugh, L.T. and Boger, D.V. 1987. Measurement of the Unique FlowProperties of Waxy Crude Oils. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 65(1987): 73-83.
Wardhaugh, L.T. and Boger, D.V. 1991. Flow characteristics of waxy crudeoils: Application to pipeline design. AIChE J. 37 (6):871-885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690370610.
Wardhaugh, L.T., Boger, D.V., and Tonner, S.P. 1988. Rheology of Waxy CrudeOils. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Tianjin,China, 1-4 November. SPE-17625-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17625-MS.
Zhang, G. 1994. Analysis of transient flow in pipeline, 2-9.Dongying, China: China University of Petroleum Press.
Zhang, G.-Z. and Liu, G. 2005. Investigation on start-up yield stress ofDaqing gelled crude oil (in Chinese). Journal of the University ofPetroleum, China 29 (2005-06): 91-93.