The Initial Startup Wave Velocity in Isothermal Pipeline With Compressible Gelled Crude Oil
- Guozhong Zhang (China University of Petroleum) | Wentao Xiao (China University of Petroleum) | Gang Liu (China University of Petroleum) | Hao Lan (Petrochina Pipeline R&D Center)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 418 - 424
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 187 since 2007
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The results of pipe-flow experiments show that the advancement velocity ofpressure is considerably slower than the transient-pressure-wave velocityduring the startup of pipeline with compressible gelled crude oil underconstant flow rate. The startup wave velocity that dominates the advancementvelocity of pressure in pipeline with compressible gelled crude oil wasdescribed and explained, and the essential difference between the startup wavevelocity and the transient-pressure-wave velocity was also described in detail.The startup wave front marks the substantive commencement of breakdown of gelstructure, and also indicates when the flow rate starts to become stable in thepipeline segments passed through during startup under constant flow rate, so itis a crucial factor affecting the calculation of startup pressure. In thispaper, the efficient numerical formulas to compute the startup wave velocitywere deduced on the basis of the analysis of 1D flow of viscoplastic media inelastic pipeline. The reliability of the formulae was verified by the wellagreement between the calculated values and the results of pipeline startupexperiments carried out with the N-Y gelled crude oil. These formulasfacilitate scientific analysis for the safe and economical operation ofpipeline transporting waxy crude oil. During the initial startup of pipelinewith compressible gelled crude oil under constant flow rate, the startup wavevelocity is considerably slower than the transient-pressure-wave velocity,decreases with the increase of the propagation distance and the gel strength ofcrude oil, and increases with the increase of startup flow rate (the volumeelastic/plastic coefficient of gelled crude oil and the ratio of the wallthickness to the inside diameter of the pipeline). It is noticeable that theformulae deduced in this paper are not limited to the pipelines with gelledcrude oil. They are also applicable to most kinds of pipelines transportingcompressible viscoplastic fluid with strong structure.
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