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Demonstration of an Efficient Concept-Selection Process for Tight and Unconventional Resources
- Dean Wehunt (Chevron Corporation) | Martin J Hrachovy (Chevron North America Exploration & Production Company) | Padmakar Ayyalasomayajula (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Stacey C. Walker (Chevron North America Exploration & Production Company (ret.))
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Economics & Management
- Publication Date
- October 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 5 - 14
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 507 since 2007
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Making an efficient and wise concept-selection decision--quickly selectingthe right project--is often of equal or greater importance than later designand execution tasks for determining project success. An efficient assessmentprocess is one that supports rapid assessment of an appropriately broad rangeof viable alternatives, leading to an optimized project design, while consumingthe minimum necessary assessment resources. Value lost from a suboptimalconcept-selection decision or from a needlessly prolonged assessment process isindependent of value-generation opportunities during design and execution, andcannot be recovered during later project phases. The objectives of the methodsshown in this paper are to improve concept-selection decision quality byallowing simultaneous optimization of interdependent development decisions, andto improve the quality of and reduce the resource requirements forsimulation-derived production forecasts. This paper presents a complementarydecision framework, production forecasting process, and economic model thatpromote an efficient and high-quality concept-selection decision, and areparticularly appropriate for early phase development concept selection andoptimization for tight or unconventional resources. The method is suitable forboth oil and gas resources, and is especially useful for assessing anddeveloping large contiguous tracts.
The decision framework is efficient because it is structured so that somedecisions are independent of the simulation model, and those decisions can beoptimized within the economic model. Our production-forecasting method isefficient because it uses small, symmetry-element reservoir-simulation models.The symmetry-element sector simulation models run fast and can evaluate manycases, but they still improve forecast quality by explicitly addressing manyrelevant physical effects that are not addressed by other methods that areattempting to model a much larger volume of the reservoir. The economic modelis efficient because it includes an automated optimizer for those decisionsthat are independent of the simulation-derived forecasts, and it promoteshigh-quality decisions by incorporating meaningful constraints to ensure thatthe forecasts are both realistic and achievable. The economic model alsoincludes a fracture efficiency factor that may be important for modeling thediminished performance observed as the number of stages increase inmultifractured horizontal wells. This fracture efficiency factor may also be animportant discriminator of performance between wells fractured by use ofaqueous vs. nonaqueous fracturing fluids.
Arnondin, M. C. 1995. Integration of Production Analyst and MicrosoftExcel's Solver for Production Forecasts and Optimization. SPE Comp App7 (5): 118-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27566-PA.
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DeMong, K. and Keene, K. 2010. Re-Engineering Surface Equipment andProcesses to Support Continuous Fracing. World Oil 231(10): D115-D123.
DeMong, K., Hands, R., and Affleck, B. 2011. Advancements in Efficiency inHorn River Shale Stimulation. Paper SPE 140654 presented at the SPE HydraulicFracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 24-26January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140654-MS.
Economides, M. J. and Martin, A. N. 2010. How to Decide Between HorizontalTransverse, Horizontal Longitudinal, and Vertical Fractured Completion. PaperSPE 134424 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference & Exhibition,Milan, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134424-MS.
Freeman, C. M., Moridis, G., Ilk, D., et al. 2009. A Numerical Study ofPerformance for Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems. Paper SPE 124961presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference & Exhibition, New Orleans,Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124961-MS.
Garza, T., Wimberg, J., Kopp, K., et al. 2010. Continual Bit DesignEvolution Improves Performance in the Skinner Ridge Field--Piceance Basin.Paper SPE 136897 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown,West Virginia, 12-14 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136897-MS.
Gupta, A. 1998. Application of PC Spreadsheet Software for Non-linearParameter Optimization. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 37 (3): 51-54.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-03-04.
Jackson, D. F. B., Virués, C. J. J., and Sask, D. 2011. Investigation ofLiquid Loading in Tight Gas Horizontal Wells with a Transient Multiphase FlowSimulator. Paper SPE 149477 presented at the Canadian Unconventional ResourcesConference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149477-MS.
King, G. E. 2010. Thirty Years of Gas Shale Fracturing: What Have WeLearned? Paper SPE 133456 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133456-MS.
King, G. E. and Leonard, D. 2011. Utilizing Fluid and Proppant TracerResults to Analyze Multi-Fractured Well Flow Back in Shales: A Framework forOptimizing Fracture Design and Application. Paper SPE 140105 presented at theSPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands,Texas, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140105-MS.
LeBlanc, D., Martel, T., Graves, D., et al. 2011. Application of Propane(LPG) Based Hydraulic Fracturing in the McCully Gas Field, New Brunswick,Canada. Paper SPE 144093 presented at the North American Unconventional GasConference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 14-16 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144093-MS.
Meyer, B. R., Bazan, L. W., Jacot, R. H., et al. 2010. Optimization ofMultiple Transverse Hydraulic Fractures in Horizontal Wellbores. Paper SPE131732 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, 23-25 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131732-MS.
Morrill, J. C. and Miskimins, J. L. 2012. Optimizing Hydraulic FractureSpacing in Unconventional Shales. Paper SPE 152595 presented at the SPEHydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6-8 February.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152595-MS.
Nandurdikar, N. and Wallace, L. 2011. Failure to Produce: An Investigationof Deficiencies in Production Attainment. Paper SPE 145437 presented at theAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145437-MS.
Reynolds, K. C., Brennan, D., Spokes, J., et al. 2004. Agbami FieldDevelopment Concept Selection: Evaluating Facility and Field DevelopmentAlternatives in an Environment of Significant Subsurface Uncertainty. Paper OTC16993 presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 3-6 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/16993-MS.
Romanson, R., Riviere, N., Taylor, R., et al. 2010. Montney Fracturing-FluidConsiderations: Case History. Paper SPE 137039 presented at the CSUG/SPECanadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference,Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19-21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137039-MS.
Roussel, N. P., Manchanda, R., and Sharma, M. M. 2012. Implications ofFracturing Pressure Data Recorded During a Horizontal Completion on StageSpacing Design. Paper SPE 152631 presented at the SPE Hydraulic FracturingTechnology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6-8 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152631-MS.
Rubin, B. 2010. Accurate Simulation of Non-Darcy Flow in StimulatedFractured Shale Reservoirs. Paper SPE 132093 presented at the SPE WesternRegional Meeting, Anaheim, California, 27-29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132093-MS.
Seidle, J.P. and Arri, L. E. 1990. Use of Conventional Reservoir Models forCoalbed Methane Simulation. Paper SPE 21599 presented at the CIM/SPEInternational Technical Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10-13 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21599-MS.
Sennhauser, E. S., Wang, S., and Liu, X. 2011. A Practical Model to Optimizethe Productivity of Multistage Fractured Horizontal Wells in the Cardium TightOil Resource. Paper SPE 146443 presented at the CSUG/SPE CanadianUnconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17 November.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146443-MS.
Shaoul, J., van Zelm, L., and de Pater, C. J. 2011. Damage Mechanisms inUnconventional-Gas-Well Stimulation--A New Look at an Old Problem. SPE Prod& Oper 26 (4): 388-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142479-PA.
Taylor, R., Fyten, G., Romanson, R., et al. 2010. Montney Fracturing FluidConsiderations. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 49 (12): 28-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143113-PA.
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