Experimental Study of Polymer-Free and Polymer-Added Foams for Underbalanced Drilling: Are Two Foam-Flow Regimes Still There?
- Ali Edrisi (Louisiana State University) | Rahul Gajbhiye (Louisiana State University) | Seung I. Kam (Louisiana State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 55 - 68
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.7.7 Cuttings Transport, 1.8 Formation Damage, 1.7.1 Underbalanced Drilling
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 294 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The foam-assisted underbalanced-drilling technique is more advantageous thanthe traditional overbalanced drilling near the productive water-sensitiveformations because of its reduced formation damage, improved rate ofpenetration, higher cuttings-transport capacity, and lower circulation losses.However, the complicated nature of foam rheology has been a major impediment tothe optimal design of field applications.
Earlier studies with surfactant foams without oils and polymers show thatfoam flow in pipe can be represented by two different flow regimes: thelow-quality regime showing either plug-flow or segregated-flow pattern, and thehigh-quality regime showing slug-flow pattern. The objective of this study isto investigate foam-flow characteristics in horizontal pipes at differentinjection conditions, with or without oils, by using polymer-free andpolymer-added surfactant foams.
The results of this study were presented in two different ways--bysteady-state pressure drops (or, apparent foam viscosity, equivalently)measured by multiple pressure taps and by the visualization of bubble size,size distribution, and flow patterns in transparent pipes. The results withsurfactant foams and oil showed that first, oil reduced the stability of foamsin pipes, thus decreasing the steady-state pressure drops and foam viscosities,and second, the presence of oil tended to lower the transition between thehigh-quality and the low-quality regimes (i.e., lower foam quality at theboundary, or lower f*g equivalently). In addition,the results with surfactant foams with polymer showed that first, polymerthickened the liquid phase and, if enough agitation was supplied, could makefoams long lived and increase foam viscosities, and second, the systemsometimes did not reach the steady state readily, showing systematicoscillations. In both cases, though, the experiments carried out in this studyshowed the presence of two distinct high-quality and low-quality flowregimes.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Aadnoy, B., Cooper, I., Miska, S. et al. 2009. Advanced Drilling and WellTechnology. Society of Petroleum Engineering.
Abbott, W.A. and Vaughn, H.F. 1976. Foam Frac Completions for Tight GasFormations. Pet. Eng. (April): 38-50.
Aubert, J.H., Kraynik, A.M., and Rand, P.B. 1986. Aqueous Foams.Scientific Am. 254 (5): 58-66.
Bikerman, J.J. 1973. Foams. Applied Physics and Engineering. Vol. 10.New York: Springer-Verlag.
Blauer, R.E., Mitchell, B.J., and Kolhaas, C.A. 1974. Determination ofLaminar, Turbulent, and Transitional Foam-Flow Losses in Pipes. Paper SPE 4885presented at 44th SPE Annual California Regional Meeting, San Francisco,California, 4-5 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4885-MS.
Bogdanovic, M., Gajbhiye, R.N., and Kam, S.I. 2009. Experimental Study ofFoam Flow in Pipes: Two Distinct Flow Regimes. Colloids and Surfaces A:Physicochem. Eng. Aspect 344 (1): 56-71.
Bonilla, L.F. and Shah, S.N. 2000. Experimental Investigation on theRheology of Foams. Paper SPE 59752 presented at the SPE/CERI Gas TechnologySymposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 3-5 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59752-MS.
Briceno, M.I. and Joseph, D.D. 2003. Self-Lubricated Transport of AqueousFoams in Horizontal Conduits. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 29(12): 1817-1831. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2003.10.001.
Calvert, J.R. and Nezhati, K. 1986. A Rheological Model for a Liquid-GasFoam. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7 (3): 164-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0142-727X(86)90016-0.
Capo, J., Yu, M., Miska, S.Z. et al. 2006. Cuttings Transport With AqueousFoam at Intermediate-Inclined Wells. SPE Drill & Compl 21 (2): 99-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89534-PA.
David, A. and Marsden, S.S. Jr. 1969. The Rheology of Foam. Paper SPE 2544presented at the Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME,Denver, Colorado, 28 September-1 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2544-MS.
Edrisi, A. and Kam, S.I. 2012. A New Foam Rheology Model for Shale-Gas FoamFracturing Applications. Paper SPE162709 presented at the SPE CanadianUnconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Canada, 30 October-1 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162709-MS.
Falk, K. and McDonald, C. 1995. An Overview of Underbalanced DrillingApplications in Canada. Paper SPE 30129 presented at the SPE European FormationDamage Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, 15-16 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30129-MS.
Gajbhiye, R.N. 2011. Characterization of Foam Flow in Pipes Using Two-FlowRegime Concept. PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University.
Gajbhiye, R.N. and Kam, S.I. 2011. Characterization of Foam Flow inHorizontal Pipes by Using Two-Flow Regime Concept. Chem. Eng. Sci. 66 (8): 1536-1549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2010.12.012.
Gajbhiye, R.N. and Kam, S.I. 2012. The Effect of Inclination Angles on FoamRheology in Pipes. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 86-87: 246-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.03.002.
Gardiner B.S., Dlugogorski, B.Z., and Jameson, G.J. 1999. Prediction ofPressure Losses in Pipe Flow of Aqueous Foams. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38: 1099-1106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie980385i.
Hall, D.L. and Roberts, R.D. 1984. Offshore Drilling With Preformed StableFoam. Paper SPE 12794 presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, LongBeach, California, 11-13 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12794-MS.
Harris, P.C. 1996. Rheology of Crosslinked Foams. SPE Prod & Fac 11 (2): 113-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28512-PA.
Hutchins, R.D. and Miller, M.J. 2005. A Circulating-Foam Loop for EvaluatingFoam at Conditions of Use. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (4):286-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80242-PA.
Kam, S.I. 2008. Improved Mechanistic Foam Simulation With Foam CatastropheTheory. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 318:62-77.
Kam, S.I., Gauglitz, P.A., and Rossen, W.R. 2002. The Yield Stress of FoamySands. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 202 (1): 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(01)01058-5.
Khade, S.D. and Shah, S.N. 2004. New Rheological Correlations for Guar FoamFluids. SPE Prod & Fac 19 (2): 77-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88032-PA.
Kim, A.K. and Dlugogorski, B.Z. 1997. Multipurpose Overhead Compressed-AirFoam System and Its Fire Suppression Performance. J. Fire ProtectionEng. 8 (3): 133-150.
Kraynick, A.M. 1988. Foam Flows. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 20: 325-357.
Manlowe, D.J. and Radke, C.J. 1990. A Pore-Level Investigation of Foam/OilInteractions in Porous Media. SPE Res Eng 5 (4): 495-502.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18069-PA.
Mannhardt, K., Novosad, J.J., and Schramm, L.L. 2000. Comparative Evaluationof Foam Stability to Oil. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (1):23-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/60686-PA.
Martins, A.L., Lourenco, A.M.F., and Silva Jr., V. 2001. Foam RheologyCharacterization as a Tool for Predicting Pressures While Drilling OffshoreWells in UBD Conditions. Paper SPE/IADC 67691 presented at the SPE/IADCDrilling Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 27 February -1 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/67691-MS.
Mitchell, B.J. 1969. Viscosity of Foam. PhD thesis, University of Oklahoma,Norman, Oklahoma.
Nikolov A.D., Wassan, D.T., Huang, D.W. et al. 1985. The Effect of Oil onFoam Stability: Mechanisms and Implications for Oil Displacement by Foam inPorous Media. Paper SPE 15443 presented at the 61st Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, New Orleans, Louisiana,5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15443-MS.
Novosad, J.J., Mannhardt, K., and Rendall, A. 1989. The Interaction BetweenFoam and Crude Oils. Paper SPE 89-40-29 presented at the Annual TechnicalMeeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 28-31 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89-40-29-MS.
Ozbayoglu, M.E., Kuru, E., Miska, S. et al. 2000. A Comparative Study ofHydraulic Models for Foam Driling. Paper SPE 65489 presented at the SPE/CIMInternational Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, Alberta,Canada, 6-8 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65489-MS.
Patton, J.T., Holbrook, S.T., and Hsu, W. 1983. Rheology of Mobility-ControlFoams. SPE J. 23 (3): 456-460. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9809-PA.
Penny, G.S., Conway, M.W., and Schraufnagel, R.A. 1993. The Evaluation ofProppant Transport and Cleanup of Foamed Fluids Used in Hydraulic Fracturing ofShallow, Water-Sensitive Reservoirs. Paper SPE 26923 presented at the SPEEastern Regional Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 2-4 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26923-MS.
Princen, H.M. 1983. Rheology of Foams and Highly Concentrated Emulsions I.Elastic Properties and Yield Stress of a Cylindrical Model System. J.Colloid Interf. Sci. 91 (1): 160-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.16/0021-9797(83)90323-5.
Raza, S.H. and Marsden, S.S. 1967. The Streaming Potential and the Rheologyof Foam. SPE J. 7 (4): 359-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1748-PA.
Reidenbach, V.G., Harris, P.C., Lee, Y.N. et al. 1986. Rheological Study ofFoam Fracturing Fluids Using Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide. SPE Prod Eng 1 (1): 31-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12026-PA.
Rojas, Y., Kakadjian, S., Aponte, A. et al. 2001. Stability and RheologicalBehavior of Aqueous Foams for Underbalanced Drilling. Paper SPE 64999 presentedat the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, 13-16February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/64999-MS.
Saintpere, S., Herzhaft, B., Toure, A. et al. 1999. Rheological Propertiesof Aqueous Foam for Underbalanced Drilling. Paper SPE 56633 presented at SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3-6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56633-MS.
Sanghani, V. and Ikoku, C.U. 1983. Rheology of Foam and Its Implications inDrilling and Cleanout Operations. J. Energy Res. Tech. 105:362-371.
Sani, A.M., Shah, S.N., and Baldwin, L. 2001. Experimental Investigation ofXanthan Foam Rheology. Paper SPE 67263 presented at the SPE Production andOperation Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 24-27 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/67263-MS.
Schramm, L. 2005. Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals andApplications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.