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Incorporating Geomechanical and Dynamic Hydraulic-Fracture-Property Changes Into Rate-Transient Analysis: Example From the Haynesville Shale
- Christopher R. Clarkson (University of Calgary) | Farhad Qanbari (University of Calgary) | Morteza Nobakht (University of Calgary) | Logan Heffner (Goodrich Petroleum)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 303 - 316
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 2.5 Hydraulic Fracturing, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 963 since 2007
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It is well-known that many unconventional reservoirs experience porosity and permeability changes with pressure change during production. In recent work, authors have incorporated geomechanical modeling into production-analysis procedures to account for stress sensitivity of permeability of unconventional gas reservoirs, such as shale gas. Such corrections are necessary both for deriving accurate estimates of reservoir and hydraulic-fracture properties from rate-transient analysis (RTA) and for developing accurate long-term forecasts. It is possible with some shale-gas reservoirs that dynamic changes may occur in both the induced hydraulic fracture and matrix permeability, which could have a substantial impact on shale gas productivity. The stress dependence of shale-gas permeability has been quantified in the laboratory by several researchers, but measurements of this kind for propped or unpropped fractures under in-situ conditions are less routinely acquired. For the latter, a variety of mechanisms, caused in part or wholly by stress changes in the induced hydraulic fracture, could lead to conductivity changes. In the current work, we investigate the impact of both stress-dependent matrix permeability and fracture-conductivity changes on rate-transient signatures and derived reservoir and hydraulic-fracture properties. Stress-dependent matrix permeability is incorporated into RTA by use of modified pseudopressure and pseudotime formulations, and fracture-conductivity changes are approximated by applying a time-dependent (dynamic) skin effect. We demonstrate that when RTA incorporates both matrix permeability changes and dynamic skin, the resulting rate-transient signature looks very similar to those of other shale plays (long term transient linear flow). Uncorrected data appear to have a very short transient-linear-flow period, followed by apparent boundary-dominated flow. The impact of the applied corrections on the estimates of system permeability and fracture half-length is demonstrated, as is the impact on production forecasts.
Ambrose, R.J., Clarkson, C.R., Youngblood, J. et al. 2011. Life-CycleDecline Curve Estimation for Tight/Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE140519presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition,The Woodlands, Texas, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140519-MS.
Araya, A. and Ozkan, E. 2002. An Account of Decline-Type-Curve of Vertical,Fractured, and Horizontal Well Production. Paper SPE 77690 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September-2October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77690-MS.
Bachman, R.C., Sen, V., Khalmanova, D. et al. 2011. Examining the Effects ofStress Dependent Permeability on Stimulated Horizontal Montney Wells. PaperCSUG/SPE 149331 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 15-17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149331-MS.
Bello, R.O. and Wattenbarger, R.A. 2009. Modelling and Analysis of Shale GasProduction With a Skin Effect. Paper 2009-82 presented at the CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 16-18 June.
Bello, R.O. and Wattenbarger, R.A. 2010. Multi-stage Hydraulically FracturedShale Gas Rate Transient Analysis. Paper SPE 126754 presented at the SPE NorthAfrica Technical Conference and Exhibition, Cairo, Egypt, 14-17 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/126754-MS.
Britt, L.K. and Schoeffler, J. 2009. The Geomechanics of a Shale Play: WhatMakes a Shale Prospective! Paper SPE 125525 presented at the SPE EasternRegional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, 23-25 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125525-MS.
Cinco-Ley, H. and Samaniego-V.F. 1981. Transient Pressure Analysis:Finite-Conductivity-Fracture Case vs. Damaged-Fracture Case. Paper SPE 10179presented at the 1981 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, 5-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10179-MS.
Clarkson, C.R. 2012. Production Data Analysis of Unconventional Gas: Reviewof Theory and Best Practices. Invited review article, International Journalof Coal Geology, in review.
Clarkson, C.R., Behmanesh, H., and Chorney, L. 2011. Production Data andPressure Transient Analysis of Horseshoe Canyon CBM Wells, Part II: Accountingfor Dynamic Skin. Paper CSUG/SPE 148994 presented at the CanadianUnconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148994-MS.
Clarkson, C.R., Jordan, C.L., Ilk, D. et al. 2012a. Rate-TransientAnalysis of 2-Phase (gas + water) CBM Wells. J. Natural Gas Sci.Engineering 8: 106-120.
Clarkson, C.R., Nobakht, M., Kaviani, D. et al. 2012b. Production Analysisof Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoirs Using the Dynamic-Slippage Concept.SPE J. 17 (1): 230-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144317-PA.
Cui, X., Bustin, A.M.M. and Bustin, R.M. 2009. Measurements of GasPermeability and Diffusivity of Tight Reservoir Rocks: Different Approaches andTheir Applications. Geofluids 9: 208-223.
Diaz de Souza, O.C., Sharp, A.J., Martinez, R.C. et al. 2012. IntegratedUnconventional Shale Gas Reservoir Modeling: A Worked Example From theHaynesville Shale, De Soto Parish, North Louisiana. Paper SPE 154692 presentedat the Americas Unconventional Resources Conference, Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, 5-7 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154692-MS.
Gierhart, R.R., Clarkson, C.R., and Seidle, J.P. 2007. Spatial Variation ofSan Juan Basin Fruitland Coalbed Methane Pressure Dependent Permeability:Magnitude and Functional Form. Paper IPTC 11333 presented at the InternationalPetroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, UAE, 4-6 December.
Handwerger, D.A., Suarez-Rivera, R., Vaughn, K.I. et al. 2011. ImprovedPetrophysical Core Measurements on Tight Shale Reservoirs Using Retort andCrushed Samples. Paper SPE 147456 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147456-MS.
Nobakht, M., Ambrose, R., and Clarkson, C.R. 2011. Effect of Heterogeneityin a Horizontal Well With Multiple Fractures on Long-Term Forecast in Shale GasReservoirs. Paper CSUG/SPE 149400 presented at the Canadian UnconventionalResources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149400-MS.
Nobakht, M. and Clarkson, C.R. 2012a. A New Analytical Method for AnalyzingLinear Flow in Tight/Shale Gas Reservoirs: Constant-Rate Boundary Condition.SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (1): 51-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143990-PA.
Nobakht, M. and Clarkson, C.R. 2012b. A New Analytical Method for AnalyzingLinear Flow in Tight/Shale Gas Reservoirs: Constant-Flowing-Pressure BoundaryCondition. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (3): 370-384. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143989-PA.
Nobakht, M. and Mattar, L. 2012. Analyzing Production Data FromUnconventional Gas Reservoirs With Linear Flow and Apparent Skin. J.Canadian Petroleum Soc. 51 (1): 52-59.
Okouma, V., Guillot, F., Sarfare, M. et al. 2011. Estimated UltimateRecovery (EUR) as a Function of Production Practices in the Haynesville Shale.Paper SPE 147623 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147623-MS.
Ozkan, E., Raghavan, R., and Apaydin, 2010. Modeling of Fluid Transfer FromShale Matrix to Fracture Network. Paper SPE 134830 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134830-MS.
Settari, A., Bachman, R.C., and Walters, D.A. 2005. How To ApproximateEffects of Geomechanics in Conventional Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 97155presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas,9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97155-MS.
Thompson, J.M., Nobakht, M., and Anderson, D.M. 2010. Modeling WellPerformance Data From Overpressured Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper CSUG/SPE 137755presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources & InternationalPetroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19-21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137755-MS.
Williams-Kovacs, J.D., Clarkson, C.R., and Nobakht, M. 2012. Impact ofMaterial Balance Equation Selection on Rate-Transient Analysis of Shale Gas.Paper SPE158041 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8-10 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158041-MS.
Yilmaz, O., Nur, A., and Nolen-Hoeksema, R. 1991. Pore Pressure Profiles inFractured and Compliant Rocks. Paper SPE 22232 available from SPE, Richardson,Texas.
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