A Thermally Actuated Gas-Lift Safety Valve
- Eric Gilbertson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) | Franz Hover (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) | Bryan Freeman (Chevron ETC)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- January 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 77 - 84
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3.1.6 Gas Lift, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 4.3.4 Scale, 3.1 Artificial Lift Systems
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 733 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Most offshore oil wells use flow-control safety valves that are either actively controlled from the surface or passively actuated by pressure changes. In this paper, we propose a passive, thermally actuated safety valve that adds redundancy to well systems and significantly increases well safety. We use quasistatic thermal modeling, validated with experimental downhole data, to identify and characterize a suitable temperature regime for shape memory alloy actuation. We develop a complete loading and shut-in procedure with the new valve that is consistent with current practice in artificial lift. Finally, through a true-scale stainless-steel prototype, we demonstrate essential manufacturability and successful valve closure in accordance with predictions.
|File Size||868 KB||Number of Pages||8|
Ashby, M.F. 1996. Materials Selection in Mechanical Design. London:Pergamon Press.
Atkins, P. and Jones, L. 2005. Chemical Principles: The Quest forInsight, third edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Bellarby, J. 2009. Well Completion Design, Vol. 56. Oxford, UK:Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier B.V.
Bible, H.V. 1977. Control system and improved pneumatically operatedtemperature controlled valve construction therefor or the like. US Patent No.4,016,853.
Brown, K.E. 1980. The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods, Volume 2a:Introduction of Artificial Lift Systems, Beam Pumping: Design Analysis GasLift. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Petroleum Publishing Company.
Carlsen, J.A., Stokka, S.Ø., and Kleppa, E. 2010. Taking the Gas LiftValves to a New Level of Reliability. Paper OTC 20820 presented at the OffshoreTechnology Conference, Houston, 3-6 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/20820-MS.
Das, D.K., Nerella, S., and Kulkarni, D. 2007. Thermal Properties ofPetroleum and Gas-to-liquid Products. Petroleum Science and Technology 25 (4): 415-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460500294556.
Deurig, T. 1990. Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys. Rushden,UK: Reed Books Services.
Dynalloy, Inc. 2010. Dynalloy, Inc.: Makers of Dynamic Alloys, http://www.dynalloy.com/.
Felzenbaum, A. 1992. Exponential model of the seasonal thermocline. Phys.Oceanogr. 3 (1): 75-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02198496.
Fridleifsson, I.B., Bertani, R., Huenges, E. et al. 2008. The possible roleand contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change. InIPCC Scoping Meeting on Renewable Energy Sources, Proceedings, Luebeck,Germany, 20-25 January 2008, ed. O. Hohmeyer and T. Trittin, 59-80. Oxford,UK: International Geothermal Association (IGA)/Elsevier. http://www.iea-gia.org/documents/FridleifssonetalIPCCGeothermalpaper2008FinalRybach20May08_000.pdf.
Hart, W.B. and Williams, R.T. 1980. Temperature-responsive valve. US PatentNo. 4,227,646.
Holand, P. and Rausand, M. 1987. Reliability of Subsea BOP systems.Reliability Engineering 19 (4): 263-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0143-8174(87)90058-8.
Homma, D. 1990. Valve driven by shape memory alloy. US Patent No.4,973,024.
Kato, H., Yamamoto, T., and Hashimoto, S. 1999. High-TemperaturePlasticity of the ß-phase in Nearly-Equiatomic Nickel-Titanium Alloys.Mater. Trans. 40 (4): 343-350.
Kelly, W.M. and Fredd, J.V. 1972. Fire safety valve. US Patent No.3,659,624.
Lagoudas, D.C. ed. 2010. Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling and EngineeringApplications. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
Ma, N., Hu, Z., Samuel, R. et al. 2006. Design and Performance Evaluation ofan Ultradeepwater Subsea Blowout Preventer Control System Using Shape MemoryAlloy Actuators. Paper SPE 101080 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101080-MS.
Mayfield, J.M. Jr. and Haselswerdt, V. 1982. Temperature controlled valvemechanism and method. US Patent No. 4,356,833.
Place, D.E. 1979. Temperature responsive valve. US Patent No. 4,133,478.
Prensky, S. 2006. Recent Advances in LWD/MWD and Formation Evaluation.World Oil 227 (March 2006).
Pymm, J. 1935. Temperature controlled valve. US Patent No. 2,004,636.
Sagar, R.K., Doty, D.R., and Schmidt, Z. 1991. Predicting TemperatureProfiles in a Flowing Well. SPE Prod Eng 6 (6): 441-448.SPE-19702-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19702-PA.
Sczerzenie, F. 2004. Consideration of the ASTM Standards for NiTi Alloys.Proc., International Conference on Shape Memory and SuperelasticTechnologies, Baden-Baden, Germany, 3-7 October, 203-210.
Smith, P. and Zappe, R.W. 2004. Valve Selection Handbook: EngineeringFundamentals for Selecting the Right Valve Design for Every Industrial FlowApplication, fifth edition. Burlington, Massachusetts: Gulf ProfessionalPublishing.
Surbled, P., Clerc, C., Le Pioufle, B. et al. 2001. Effect of thecomposition and thermal annealing on the transformation temperatures ofsputtered TiNi shape memory alloy thin films. Thin Solid Films 401 (1-2): 52-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(01)01634-0.
Takacs, G. 2005. Gas Lift Manual. Tulsa, Oklahoma: PennWellCorporation.
Tanju, B.T. and Worman, P.J. 2009. Shape Memory Alloy Actuation. US PatentApplication No. 20090139727.
Tarvis, R.J. Jr. 1984. Temperature controlled valve. US Patent No.4,454,983.