- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
A Complete Petrophysical-Evaluation Method for Tight Formations From Drill Cuttings Only in the Absence of Well Logs
- Camilo Ortega (University of Calgary) | Roberto Aguilera (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 636 - 647
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 5.6.2 Core Analysis
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 503 since 2007
- Show more detail
The amount of tight-formation petrophysical work conducted at present inhorizontal wells and the examples available in the literature are limited toonly those wells that have complete data sets. This is very important. But thereality is that in the vast majority of horizontal wells, the data required fordetailed analyses are quite scarce. Petrophysical evaluation in the absence ofwell logs and cores can now be considered owing to the possibility of measuringboth the permeability and porosity of drill cuttings. This is essential becausethe application of the successive correlations used throughout the paper isbased on porosity and permeability data.
To try to alleviate the data-scarcity problem, a new method is presented forcomplete petrophysical evaluation derived from information that can beextracted from drill cuttings in the absence of well logs. The cuttings datainclude porosity and permeability. The gamma ray and any other logs, ifavailable, can help support the interpretation. However, the methodology isbuilt strictly on data extracted from cuttings and can be used for horizontal,slanted, and vertical wells. The method is illustrated with the use of a tightgas formation in the Deep basin of the western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB).However, it also has direct application in the case of liquids.
The method is shown to be a powerful petrophysical tool because it allowsquantitative evaluation of water saturation, pore-throat aperture, capillarypressure, flow units, porosity (or cementation) exponent m,true-formation resistivity, and distance to a water table (if present). Also,the method allows one to distinguish the contributions from viscous anddiffusion-like flow in tight gas formations. The method further allows theconstruction of Pickett plots without previous availability of well logs, andit assumes the existence of intervals at irreducible water saturation, which isthe case of many tight formations currently under exploitation.
It is concluded that drill cuttings are a powerful direct source ofinformation that allows complete and practical evaluation of tight reservoirsin which well logs are scarce. The uniqueness and practicality of thisquantitative procedure originate from the fact that it starts only from thelaboratory analysis of drill cuttings--something that has not been performed inthe past.
Aguilera, R. 1990. A New Approach for Analysis of the Nuclear MagneticLog-Resistivity Combination. J. Cdn. Pet Tech. 29 (1):67-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90-01-07-PA.
Aguilera, R. 2002. Incorporating Capillary Pressure, Pore Throat ApertureRadii, Height Above Free-Water Table, and Winland r35 Valueson Pickett Plots. AAPG Bull. 86 (4): 605-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/61EEDB5C-173E-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Aguilera, R. 2010. Flow Units: From Conventional to Tight Gas to Shale GasReservoirs. Paper SPE 132845 presented at the Trinidad and Tobago EnergyResources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 27-30 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132845-MS.
Aguilera, R. and Aguilera, M.S. 2002. The Integration of Capillary Pressuresand Pickett Plots for Determination of Flow Units and Reservoir Containers.SPE Res Eval & Eng 5 (6): 465-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81196-PA.
American Petroleum Institute. 1998. Recommended Practices for CoreAnalysis, second edition, API-Recommended Practice 40, Washington, DC:American Petroleum Institute.
Archie, G.E. 1942. The Electrical Resistivity Log as an Aid Determining SomeReservoir Characteristics. Trans. AIME 146 (1): 54-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/942054-G.
Buckles, R.S. 1965. Correlating and Averaging Connate Water Saturation Data.J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 4 (1): 42-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65-01-07-PA.
Byrnes, A.P., Cluff, R.M., and Webb, J.C. 2006. Analysis of CriticalPermeability, Capillary Pressure, and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde TightGas Sandstone from Western US Basins. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, DOEContract No. DE-FC26-05NT42660, Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Centerof Research.
Coalson, E.B., Hartmann, D.J., and Thomas, J.B. 1985. ProductiveCharacteristics of Common Reservoir Porosity Types. South Texas GeologicalSociety Bull. 15 (6): 35-51.
Contreras, O. 2011. An Innovative Approach for Pore Pressure Prediction andDrilling Optimization in the Abnormally Subpressured "Deep basin" of thewestern Canada Sedimentary Basin, MSc thesis, Department of Chemical andPetroleum Engineering, University of Calgary.
Contreras, O., Hareland, G., and Aguilera, R. 2012. An Innovative Approachfor Pore Pressure Prediction and Drilling Optimization in an AbnormallySubpressured Basin. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (4): 531-545.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148947-PA.
Culec, L. 1977. Study of Problems Related to the Restoration of the NaturalState of Core Samples. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 16 (4): 68-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77-04-09-PA.
Deng, H., Leguizamon, J., and Aguilera, R. 2011. Petrophysics ofTriple-Porosity Tight Gas Reservoirs With a Link to Gas Productivity. SPERes Eval & Eng 14 (5): 566-577. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144590-PA.
Egermann, P., Doerler, N., Fleury, M. et al. 2004. PetrophysicalMeasurements From Drill Cuttings an Added Value for the ReservoirCharacterization Process. Paper SPE 88684 presented at Abu Dhabi InternationalPetroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 10-13 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88684-MS.
Egermann, P., Lenormand, R., Longeron, D. et al. 2002. A Fast and DirectMethod of Permeability Measurements on Drill Cuttings. Paper SPE 77563presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio,Texas, 29 September-2 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77563-MS.
Egermann, P., Lenormand, R., Longeron, D. et al. 2005. A Fast and DirectMethod of Permeability Measurement on Drill Cuttings. SPE Res Eval &Eng 8 (4): 269-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77563-PA.
Hartmann, D.J. and Beaumont, E.A. 1999. Predicting Reservoir System Qualityand Performance. In Exploring for Oil and Gas Traps: AAPG Treatise ofPetroleum Geology, Handbook of Petroleum Geology, ed. E.A. Beaumont andN.H. Foster, 9-1-9-154.
Hews, P. 2011. Structural Features That Can Be Identified From DrillCuttings. Geological Workshop Material, Calgary, Canada: Hara ConsultingLtd.
Javadpour, F., Fisher, D., and Unsworth, M. 2007. Nanoscale Gas Flow inShale Gas Sediments. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 46 (10). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-10-06-PA.
Klinkenberg, L.J. 1941. The Permeability of Porous Media to Liquid andGases. Paper 41-200 presented at the API 11th Mid-Year Meeting, Tulsa,Oklahoma, In API Drilling and Production Practice, Washington,DC: American Petroleum Institute, 200-213.
Knudsen, M. 1909. Ann. der Physik. 28: 75-130.
Kolodzie, Jr., S. 1980. The Analysis of Pore Throat Size and Use ofWaxman-Smits to Determine OOIP in Spindle Field, Colorado. SPE paper 9382presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas,21-24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9382-MS.
Kwon, B.S. and Pickett, G.R. 1975. A New Pore Structure Model and PoreStructure Interrelationships: Society of Professional Well Log Analysts 16thAnnual Logging Symposium, 14 p.
Law, B.E. 2002. Basin-Centered Gas Systems. AAPG Bull. 86: 1891-1919.
Lenormand, R. and Fonta, O. 2007. Advances in Measuring Porosity andPermeability From Drill Cuttings. Paper SPE 111286 presented at the 2007SPE/EAGE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE,28-31 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111286-MS.
Martin, A.J., Solomon, S.T., and Hartmann, D.J. 1999. Characterization ofPetrophysical Flow Units in Carbonate Reservoirs. AAPG Bull. 83: 1164-1173.
Masters, J.A. 1979. Deep Basin Gas Trap, Western Canada. AAPGBull. 63: 152-181.
Morris, R.L. and Biggs, W.P. 1967. Using Log-Derived Values of WaterSaturation and Porosity. Paper 1967-X presented at the Society of ProfessionalWell Log Analysts Annual Logging Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 12-14 June.
Ortega, C. 2012. Drill Cuttings-Based Methodology to Optimize Multi-StageHydraulic Fracturing in Horizontal Wells and Unconventional Gas Reservoirs, MScthesis, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Schulich School ofEngineering, University of Calgary.
Ortega, C. and Aguilera, R. 2012a. Use of Drill Cuttings for Improved Designof Hydraulic Fracturing Jobs in Horizontal Wells. Paper SPE 155746 prepared forpresentation at the Americas Unconventional Resources Conference, Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, 5-7 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/155746-MS.
Ortega, C. and Aguilera, R. 2012b. Potential Impact of Drill Cuttings on theDesign of Multi-Stage Hydraulic Fracturing Jobs in Tight Gas Formations. Paper2012-155 presented at the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (SPWLA)53rd Annual Logging Symposium, Cartagena, Colombia, 16-20 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2012-155.
Pickett, G.R. 1966. A Review of Current Techniques for Determination ofWater Saturation From Logs. J. Pet Tech 18 (11): 1425-1433.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1446-PA.
Pickett, G.R. 1973. Pattern Recognition as a Means of Formation Evaluation.Log Analysts 14 (4): 3-11.
Pittman, E.D. 1992. Relationship of Porosity and Permeability to VariousParameters Derived from Mercury Injection—Capillary Pressure Curves forSandstone. AAPG Bull. 76 (2): 191-198.
Rahmanian, M.R., Aguilera, R., and Kantzas, A. 2011. A New UnifiedDiffusion-Viscous Flow Model Based on Pore Level Studies of Tight GasFormations. Paper CSUG/SPE 149223 presented at the Canadian UnconventionalResources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17 November. In press:SPE J., 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149223-MS.
Rahmanian, M., Solano, N., and Aguilera, R. 2010. Storage and Output FlowFrom Shale and Tight Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 133611presented at the SPEWestern Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, 27-29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133611-MS.
Ramirez, J.F. and Aguilera, R. 2012. Updip Water Blockage in the NikanassinBasin Centered Gas Accumulation, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Paper SPE162774 presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference,Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 October-1 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162774-MS.
Sneider, R.M. and King, H.R. 1984. Integrated Rock-Log Calibration in theElmworth Field, Alberta, Canada: Part 1: Reservoir Rock Detection andCharacterization. In Elmworth: Case Study of a Deep Basin Gas Field: AAPGMemoir, Vol. M 38, American Association of Petroleum Geologists SpecialVolumes, 205-214.
Solano, N.A. 2012. Reservoir Characterization of the Upper Jurassic-LowerCretaceous Nikanassin Group. MSc thesis, Geoscience Department, GeoscienceDepartment, University of Calgary, Canada (December 2012).
Solano, N., Zambrano, L., and Aguilera, R. 2011. Cumulative Gas ProductionDistribution on the Nikanassin Tight Gas Formation, Alberta and BritishColumbia, Canada. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (3):357-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132923-PA.
Washburn, E.W. 1921. Note on a Method of Determining the Distribution ofPore Sizes in a Porous Material. Proceedings of the National Academyof Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 7 (4):115-116.
Yu, G. and Aguilera, R. 2011. Use of Pickett Plots for Evaluation of ShaleGas Formations. Paper SPE 146948 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October—2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146948-MS.
Ziarani, A.S. and Aguilera, R. 2012. Knudsen's Permeability Correction forTight Porous Media. Transp. Porous Media (Springer) 91 (1):239-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-011-9842-6.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.