Four-Fluid-Phase, Fully Implicit Simulation of Surfactant Flooding
- Leonardo Patacchini (Total S.A.) | Romain de Loubens (Total S.A.) | Arthur Moncorge (Total S.A.) | Adrien Trouillaud (Total S.A.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 271 - 285
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 4.6 Natural Gas, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant)
- surfactant, four-fluid-phase, microemulsion, fully implicit, reservoir simulation
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 627 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The Microemulsion phase behavior model based on oleic/aqueous/surfactant pseudophase equilibrium, commonly used in chemical flooding simulators, is coupled to Gas/Oil/Water phase equilibrium in our new four-fluid-phase, fully implicit in-house research reservoir simulator (IHRRS) (Moncorge et al. 2012). The method consistsof splitting the equilibrium into two stages, in which all the components other than surfactant are equilibrated first - by use of a black-oil, K-value, or equation of state (EOS) model - and the resulting Gas, Oil, and Water phases are then lumped into pseudophases to be equilibrated by use of the Microemulsion model. This subdivision in stages is conceptual, and at each converged timestep the four phases (Gas, Oil, Water, and Microemulsion, when simultaneously present) will be in equilibrium with each other. The fluid properties (such as densities, viscosities, and interfacial tensions) and rock/fluid properties (such as relative permeabilities) required in the transport equations are evaluated with models from well-known industrial or academic simulators. Surfactant flooding being usually implemented as a tertiary recovery mechanism, on fields for which complete models that we do not wish to modify already exist, particular care is devoted to ensuring continuity of the physics at the onset of surfactant injection. Our code is first validated against a reference academic chemical- flooding simulator, on a 1D, three-fluid-phase (Oil/Water/ Microemulsion) coreflood. Second, as application examples where it is necessary to account for four phases in equilibrium, we consider a scenario where the chemical flood is preceded by a vaporizing Gas drive, as well as a scenario where dissolved gas is released by the Oil during the flooding process. Some aspects of our implementation, such as numerical dispersion vs. timestep length and nonlinear convergence, are also discussed; in particular, we show that numerical performance is not degraded by the four-phase equilibrium.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Barker, J. 1990. Co-Deployment of Surfactant/Polymer and Miscible Gas Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes: A Simulation Study. Paper SPE 20236 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–25 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20236-MS.
Coats, K. 1980. An Equation of State Compositional Model. SPE J. 20 (5): 363–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8284-PA.
Coats, K. 2001. IMPES Stability: The CFL Limit. Paper SPE 66345 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, Texas, 11–14 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/66345-MS.
Computer Modelling Group. 2010. STARS User’s Guide. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: CMG.
Computer Modelling Group. 2011. STARS-ME User’s Guide. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: CMG.
Delshad, M., Bhuyan, D., Pope, G., et al. 1986. Effect of Capillary Number on the Residual Satuation of a Three-Phase Micellar Solution. Paper SPE 14911 presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20–23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14911-MS.
Delshad, M., Pope, G. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2000. Volume II: Technical Documentation for UTCHEM-9.0: A Three-Dimensional Chemical Flood Simulator. Austin, Texas: Reservoir Engineering Research Program at the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.
Farajzadeh, R., Matsuura, T., Van Batenburg, D., et al. 2012. Detailed Modeling of the Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP) Process by Coupling a Multipurpose Reservoir Simulator to the Chemistry Package PHREEQC. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (4): 423–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143671-PA.
Friedmann, F., Chen, W. and Gauglitz, P. 1991. Experimental and Simulation Study of High-Temperature Foam Displacement in Porous Media. SPE Res Eng 6 (1): 37–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17357-PA.
Gullapalli, I. L. and Chih-Hung, M. 2011. Methods for Performing Ssimulation of Surfactant Flooding of a Hydrocarbon Reservoir. US Patent Application No. US 13/160,802; Patent Publication No. US8271249 B2.
Han, C., Delshad, M., Pope, G., et al. 2009. Coupling Equation-of-State Compositional and Surfactant Models in a Fully Implicit Parallel Reservoir Simulator Using the Equivalent-Alkane-Carbon-Number Concept. SPE J. 14 (2): 302–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/103194-PA.
Hirasaki, G. J., van Domselaar, H. R. and Nelson, R. C. 1983. Evaluation of the Salinity Gradient Concept in Surfactant Flooding. SPE J. 23 (3): 486–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8825-PA.
Khan, S., Pope, G. and Trangenstein, J. 1996. Micellar/Polymer Physical-Property Models for Contaminant Cleanup Problems and Enhanced Oil Recovery. Transport Porous Med. 24 (1): 35–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00175603.
Killough, J. E. 1995. Ninth SPE Comparative Solution Project: A Reexamination of Black-Oil Simulation. Paper SPE 29110 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, 12–15 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29110-MS.
Lake, L. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Lapene, A., Nichita, D., Debenest, G., et al. 2010. Three-Phase Free-Water Flash Ccalculations Using a New Modified Rachford-Rice Equation. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 297 (1): 121–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2010.06.018.
Liu, S. 2007. Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Enhanced Oil Recovery Process. PhD dissertation, Rice University, Houston, Texas (2007).
Moncorgé, A., Patacchini, L. and de Loubens, R. 2012. Multi-Phase, Multi-Component Simulation Framework for Advanced Recovery Mechanisms. Paper SPE 161615 presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 11–14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/161615-MS.
Najafabadi, N., Delshad, M., Han, C., et al. 2012. Formulation for a Three-Phase, Fully Implicit, Parallel, EOS Compositional Surfactant-Polymer Flooding Simulator. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 86–87 (May): 257–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.03.025.
Nelson, R. and Pope, G. 1978. Phase Relationships in Chemical Flooding. SPE J. 18 (5): 325–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6773-PA.
Petroleum Experts. 2009. REVEAL Version 4.0 User’s Manual. Edinburgh, Scotland: Petroleum Experts Limited.
Pope, G. and Nelson, R. 1978. A Chemical Flooding Compositional Simulator. SPE J. 18 (5): 339–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6725-PA.
Roshanfekr, M., Johns, R., Pope, G., et al. 2012. Simulation of the Effect of Pressure and Solution Gas on Oil Recovery From Surfactant/Polymer Floods. SPE J. 17 (3): 705–716. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125095-PA.
Schlumberger. 2011. ECLIPSE Reservoir Simulation Software Technical Description.
Søreide, I. and Whitson, C. 1992. Peng-Robinson Predictions for Hydrocarbons, CO2, N2, and H2S with Pure Water and NaCl Brine. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 77 (15 September) 217–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(92)85105-H.
Southwick, J., Svec, Y., Chileck, G., et al. 2012. Effect of Live Crude on Alkaline/Surfactant Polymer Formulations: Implications for Final Formulation Design. SPE J. 17 (2): 352–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135357-PA.