History Matching Time-Lapse Surface-Gravity and Well-Pressure Data With Ensemble Smoother for Estimating Gasfield Aquifer Support--A 3D Numerical Study
- Marcin A. Glegola (Delft University of Technology) | Pavel Ditmar (Delft University of Technology) | Remus Hanea (TNO) | Ola Eiken (Statoil) | Femke C. Vossepoel (Shell International Exploration and Production B.V.) | Rob Arts (TNO) | Roland Klees (Delft University of Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 966 - 980
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 366 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Water influx is an important factor influencing production of gas reservoirs with an active aquifer. However, aquifer properties such as size, porosity, and permeability are typically uncertain and make predictions of field performance challenging. The observed pressure decline is inherently nonunique with respect to water influx, and large uncertainties in the actual reservoir state are common. Time-lapse (4D) gravimetry, which is a direct measure of a subsurface mass redistribution, has the potential to provide valuable information in this context.
Recent improvements in instrumentation and data-acquisition and -processing procedures have made time-lapse gravimetry a mature monitoring technique, both for land and offshore applications. However, despite an increasing number of gas fields in which gravimetric monitoring has been applied, little has been published on the added value of gravity data in a broader context of modern reservoir management on the basis of the closed-loop concept. The way in which gravity data can contribute to improved reservoir characterization, production-forecast accuracy, and hydrocarbon-reserves estimation is still to be addressed in many respects.
In this paper, we investigate the added value of gravimetric observations for gasfield-production monitoring and aquifer-support estimation. We perform a numerical study with a realistic 3D gasfield model that contains a large and complex aquifer system. The aquifer support and other reservoir parameters (i.e., porosity, permeability, reservoir top and bottom horizons) are estimated simultaneously using the ensemble smoother (ES). We consider three cases in which gravity only is assimilated, pressure only is assimilated, and gravity and pressure data are assimilated jointly. We show that a combined estimation of the aquifer support with the permeability field, porosity field, and reservoir structure is a very challenging and nonunique history-matching problem, in which gravity certainly has an added value. Pressure data alone may not discriminate between different reservoir scenarios. Combining pressure and gravity data may help to reduce the nonuniqueness problem and provide not only an improved gas- and water-production forecast and gas-in-place evaluation, but also a more-accurate reservoir-state description.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Aanonsen, S.I., Nævdal, G., Oliver, D.S. et al. 2009. The Ensemble KalmanFilter In Reservoir Engineering--a Review. SPE J. 14 (3):393-412. SPE-117274-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117274-PA.
Ahmadzamri, A.F., Musgrove, F.W., Bridle, I.M. et al. 2009. SuccessfulReservoir Monitoring With 4D Microgravity at Ras Laffan, State of Qatar. PaperIPTC 13640 presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference,Doha, Qatar, 7-9 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/13640-MS.
Ahmed, T. 2006. Reservoir Engineering Handbook, third edition.Burlington, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing/Elsevier.
Alnes, H., Eiken, O., and Stenvold, T. 2008. Monitoring gas production andCO2 injection at the Sleipner field using time-lapse gravimetry.Geophysics 73 (6): WA155-WA161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2991119.
Alnes, H., Eiken, O., Nooner, S. et al. 2011. Results from Sleipner gravitymonitoring: updated density and temperature distribution of the CO2 plume.Energy Procedia 4: 5504-5511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.536.
Brady, J.L., Ferguson, J.F., Hare, J.L. et al. 2008. Results of the World'sFirst 4D Microgravity Surveillance of a Waterflood--Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. SPERes Eval & Eng 11 (5): 824-831. SPE-101762-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101762-PA.
Dake, L.P. 2001. The Practice of Reservoir Engineering, No. 36.Amsterdam: Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier Publishing Company.
Diamond, P.H. and Ovens, J.V. 2011. Practical Aspects of Gas MaterialBalance: Theory and Application. Paper SPE 142963 presented at the SPEEUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 23-26 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142963-MS.
Eiken, O., Stenvold, T., Zumberge, M. et al. 2008. Gravimetric monitoring ofgas production from the Troll field. Geophysics 73 (6):WA149-WA154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2978166.
Evensen, G. 1994. Sequential data assimilation with a nonlinearquasi-geostrophic model using Monte Carlo methods to forecast error statistics.J. Geophys. Res. 99 (C5): 10143-10162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/94JC00572.
Ferguson, J.F., Chen, T., Brady, J. et al. 2007. The 4D microgravity methodfor waterflood surveillance II--Gravity measurements for the Prudhoe Bayreservoir, Alaska. Geophysics 72 (2): I33-I43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2435473.
Ferguson, J.F., Klopping, F.J., Chen, T. et al. 2008. The 4D microgravitymethod for waterflood surveillance: Part 3--4D absolute microgravity surveys atPrudhoe Bay, Alaska. Geophysics 73 (6): WA163-WA171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2992510.
Glegola, M.A., Ditmar, P., Hanea, R.G. et al. 2012. Gravimetric Monitoringof Water Influx Into a Gas Reservoir: A Numerical Study Based on the EnsembleKalman Filter. SPE J. 17 (1): 163-176. SPE-149578-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149578-PA.
Hare, J.L., Ferguson, J.F., and Brady, J.L. 2008. The 4D microgravity methodfor waterflood surveillance: Part IV—Modeling and interpretation of early epoch4D gravity surveys at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Geophysics 73(6): WA173-WA180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2991120.
Jansen, J.D., Douma, S.D., Brouwer, D.R. et al. 2009. Closed Loop ReservoirManagement. Paper presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, TheWoodlands, Texas, USA, 2-4 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119098-MS.
Meisingset, K.K. 1999. Uncertainties in Reservoir Fluid Description forReservoir Modeling. SPE Res Eval & Eng 2 (5): 431-435.SPE-57886-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57886-PA.
Nooner, S.L., Eiken, O., Hermanrud, C. et al. 2007. Constraints on the insitu density of CO2 within the Utsira formation from time-lapse seafloorgravity measurements. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 1 (2):198-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1750-5836(07)00018-7.
Oliver, D. and Chen, Y. 2011. Recent progress on reservoir history matching:a review. Comput. Geosci. 15 (1): 185-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10596-010-9194-2.
Peters, L., Arts, R.J., Brouwer, G.K. et al. 2010. Results of the BruggeBenchmark Study for Flooding Optimization and History Matching. SPE Res Eval& Eng 13 (3): 391-405. SPE-119094-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119094-PA.
Remy, N., Boucher, A., and Wu, J. 2009. Applied Geostatistics with SGeMS:A User's Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Seiler, A., Aanonsen, S.I., Evensen, G. et al. 2010. Structural SurfaceUncertainty Modeling and Updating Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. SPEJ. 15 (4): 1062-1076. SPE-125352-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125352-PA.
Siddique, M. 2011. Application of Time Lapse Gravity in History Matching aGas/Condensate Field. Paper presented at the EAGE/SPE Joint Workshop, Istanbul,Turkey, 4-6 April.
Skjervheim, J.-A. and Evensen, G. 2011. An Ensemble Smoother for assistedHistory Matching. Paper SPE 141929 presented at the SPE Reservoir SimulationSymposium, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 21-23 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141929-MS.
Stenvold, T., Eiken, O., and Landro, M. 2008. Gravimetric monitoring ofgas-reservoir water influx--A combined flow- and gravity-modeling approach.Geophysics 73 (6): WA123-WA131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2991104.
Torge, W. 1989. Gravimetry. New York: Walter De Gruyter Inc.
Van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W. 1949. The Application of the LaplaceTransformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 1 (12): 305-324. SPE-949305-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/949305-G.
van Leeuwen, P.J. and Evensen, G. 1996. Data Assimilation and InverseMethods in Terms of a Probabilistic Formulation. Monthly Weather Review 124 (12): 2898-2913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<2898:daaimi>2.0.co;2.
Veeken, C.A.M., Chin, H.-V., Ross, R.W. et al. 2000. Monitoring and Controlof Water Influx in Strong Aquifer Drive Gas Fields Offshore Sarawak. Paper SPE64402 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition,Brisbane, Australia, 16-18 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/64402-MS.
Zumberge, M., Alnes, H., Eiken, O. et al. 2008. Precision of seafloorgravity and pressure measurements for reservoir monitoring. Geophysics 73 (6): WA133-WA141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2976777.