An Electrodeless System for Measuring Electric Logging Parameters on Cores and Mud Samples
- Irving Fatt (U. of California)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 1961
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 292 - 294
- 1961. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.11.2 Drilling Fluid Selection and Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.12.3 Mud logging / Surface Measurements, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing
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A recently developed system for measuring electrical resistivity of liquids without use of electrodes offers some interesting possibilities in electric logging technology. The equipment as supplied by the manufacturer is satisfactory for continuous mud logging on a drilling rig or for measuring mud or filtrate resistivity in the laboratory. A simple modification of the commercially available instrument makes it suitable for measuring resistivity of core samples in the laboratory.
The continuous measurement of mud resistivity on a drilling rig is a convenient means for detecting mixing of formation water with the drilling mud. Such information is useful to the geologist, the mud engineer and the logging engineer. However, continuous mud resistivity logging by conventional electrode-type resistivity cells is beset with difficulties. The mud, sand and rock chips abrade the electrodes, thereby changing the cell constant and eventually destroying the cell. Also, additives and crude oil in the mud may poison the electrodes by coating them with a nonconductive material. An electrode-type resistivity cell, therefore, may give erroneous readings under certain conditions. Electric logging companies circumvent the electrode poisoning problem by using a four-electrode resistivity cell for measurement of mud resistivity. In this cell, change in electrode area does not change the cell constant. However, the four-electrode cell is difficult to adapt for continuous reading and does not solve completely the problem of electrode abrasion by the sand and cuttings in the mud.
The measurement of electric logging parameters on core samples in the laboratory encounters some of the same problems discussed in connection with mud logging. Ideally, the electrical resistivity of a core sample should be measured by placing platinum black electrodes in direct contact with the plane ends of a cylindrical or rectangular sample. Platinum black electrodes however, are much too fragile and easily abraded to be brought in contact with a rock sample. Also, oil or other constituents in the fluid contained in the sample will poison platinum black. In practice, gold-plated brass electrodes, in an AC bridge circuit operating at about 1,000 cps, are used for routine core analysis. For more precise work in research studies, a four-electrode scheme is used. Preparation of the samples for the four-electrode method is much too involved for routine core analysis.
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