- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Correlations Between NMR-Relaxation Response and Relative Permeability From Tomographic Reservoir-Rock Images
- Tariq M. AlGhamdi (Saudi Aramco) | Christoph H. Arns (University of New South Wales) | Ramsin Y. Eyvazzadeh (Saudi Aramco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 369 - 377
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 12 in the last 30 days
- 467 since 2007
- Show more detail
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is typically used in the petroleum industryto characterize pore size and to identify fluids in fully and partiallysaturated reservoir samples. Although the NMR-relaxation response can be usedto estimate the permeability of the rock, it may also provide information aboutthe fluid distribution for multiphase systems that could lead to the estimationof the effective permeability of fluids at partial saturations and thederivation of relative permeability to assess hydrocarbon recovery. By use of arandom-walk method, we simulate the NMR response as a function of saturation ontomographic images of Bentheimer and Berea sandstone as well as Ferroandolomite samples. Fluid distributions are simulated for fully water-wetconditions by use of a morphological capillary-drainage transform, allowing thecalculations of the saturations directly on the images corresponding tocapillary pressure. The magnetic susceptibility of minerals and fluids is usedto calculate the internal magnetic fields from the material distributions ofsolids and fluids quantified by X-ray-diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show thatthe logarithmic mean of the NMR T2 distribution is a robustmeasure of permeability, and it results in strong correlations between NMRresponse and the relative permeability of both fluids. The observed relativepermeability from NMR in our work is in excellent agreement with image-basedrelative permeability calculations by use of the lattice Boltzmann method(LBM). We compare our NMR results for the wetting phase to publishedexperimental results on Bentheimer and Berea sandstone samples, and we observeexcellent agreement. By use of NMR numerical calculations, we demonstrate thatinternal gradients aid the establishment of relative permeability correlationsfor the nonwetting phase.
Akkurt, R., Mardon, D., Solanet, F. et al. 1998. Enhance Diffusion:Expanding the Range of NMR Direct Hydrocarbon-Typing Applications. Paper1998-GG presented at the SPWLA 39th Annual Logging Symposium.
Akkurt, R. 1995. NMR Logging of Natural Gas Reservoirs. Paper presented atthe SPWLA 36th Annual Logging Symposium.
Akkurt, R. 2005. Practical NMR Logging.
Archie, G.E. 1942. The Electrical Resistivity Log As an Aid in DeterminingSome Reservoir Characteristics. Trans. AIME 146: 54.
Arns, C.H., Melean, Y., Burcaw, L. et al. 2009. Comparison of ExperimentalNMR Measurements With Simulated Responses on Digitized Images of Mono-MineralicRocks Using X-ray-CT. Paper SCA 2009-44 presented at the Improved Core Analysisfor Unconventional Fields, Society of Core Analysts, in The 23rd InternationalSymposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 27-30 September.
Arns, C.H., AlGhamdi, T., Arns, J.-Y. et al. 2010. Analysis of T2-DRelaxation-Diffusion NMR Measurements for Partially Saturated Media atDifferent Field Strength. Paper SCA 2010-17 presented at the Society of CoreAnalysts, in The 24th International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts,Halifax, 4-7 October.
Arns, C.H., AlGhamdi, T., and Arns, J.Y. 2011. Numerical Analysis of NuclearMagnetic Resonance Relaxation-Diffusion Responses of Sedimentary Rock. NewJ. Physics 13: 015004.
Arns, C.H., Knackstedt, M.A., and Martys, N. 2005 Cross-PropertyCorrelations and Permeability Estimation in Sandstone. Phys. Rev. E 72: 046304.
Arns, C.H. 2007. An Analysis of NMR-Permeability Scaling Rules by NumericalMRI. Paper presented at the Annual Logging Symposium, Society ofPetrophysicists and Well Log Analysts, Austin, Texas, June.
Banavar, J.R. and Schwartz, L.M. 1987. Magnetic Resonance as a Probe ofPermeability in Porous Media. Phys. Rev. Lett. 58:1411.
Bergman, D.J., Dunn, K.J., Schwartz, L.M. et al. 1995. Self-Diffusion in aPeriodic Porous Medium: A Comparison of Different Approaches. Phys. Rev.E 51 (4): 3393.
Bloembergen, N., Purcell, E.M., and Pound, R.V. 1948. Relaxation Effects inNuclear Magnetic Resonance Absorption. Phys. Rev. 7: 679.
Carr, H.Y. and Purcell, E.M. 1954. Effects of Diffusion on Free Precessionin Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Problems. Phys. Rev. 94:630.
Chen, S., Liaw, H.-K., and Watson, A.T. 1993. Fluid Saturation-DependentNuclear Magnetic Resonance Spin-Lattice Relaxation in Porous Media and PoreStructure Analysis. J. Appl. Phys. 74: 1473.
Chen, S., Kim, K.H., Qin, F. et al. 1992. Quantitative NMR Imaging ofMultiphase Flow in Porous Media. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10 (5): 815-826.
Chen, S., Liaw, H.-K., and Watson, A. 1994. Measurements and Analysis ofFluid Saturation-Dependent NMR Relaxation and Linebroadening in Porous Media.Magnetic Resonance Imaging 12: 201.
Chen, S., Lilong, L., Zhang, G. et al. 2011. Magnetic Resonance forDownhole Complex-Lithology Earth Formation Evaluation. New J. Phys. 13: 085015.
Coates, G.R., Xiao, L., and Prammer, M.G. 1999. NMR Logging Principlesand Applications, Halliburton Energy Services.
Curwen, D.W. and Molaro, C. 1995. Permeability From Magnetic ResonanceImaging Logs, Paper presented at the SPWLA 36th Annual Logging Symposium,June.
Dunn, K.J., LaTorraca, G.A. and Bergman, D.J. 1999. Permeability RelationWith Other Petrophysical Parameters for Periodic Porous Media.Geophysics 64: 470.
Gunstensen, A.K. and Rothman, D.H. 1991. Lattice Boltzmann Model ofImmiscible Fluids. Phys. Rev. A 43: 4320.
Hahn, E.L. 1950. Spin Echoes. Phys. Rev. 80: 580.
Hidajat, I., Singh, M., Cooper, J. et al. 2002. Permeability of Porous MediaFrom Simulated NMR Response. Transport in Porous Media 48:225-247.
Hilpert, M. and Miller, C.T. 2001. Pore-Morphology Based Simulation ofDrainage in Totally Wetting Porous Media. Advances in Water Resources 24: 243.
Hürlimann, M.D., Helmer, K.G., and Sotak, C.H. 1998. Dephasing of Hahn Echoin Rocks by Diffusion in Susceptibility-Induced Field Inhomogeneities.Magnetic Resonance Imaging 16: 535.
Hussain, F. 2011. Experimental Validation of Image-Based Drainage RelativePermeability. PhD thesis, University of New South Wales.
Ioannidis, M.A., Ghatzis, I., and Perunarkilli, R. 2006. UnsaturatedHydraulic Conductivity From Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements. WaterResources Research 42: 6 PP, W07201.
Katz, A.J. and Thompson, A.H. 1987. Prediction of Rock ElectricalConductivity From Mercury Injection Experiments. J. Geophys. Res. 92: 599.
Keating, K. and Knight, R. 2010. A Laboratory Study of the Effect ofFe(II)-Bearing Minerals on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) RelaxationMeasurements. Geophysics 75: F72.
Kenyon, W.E., Day, P.I., Straley, C. et al. 1988. A Three-Part Study of NMRLongitudinal Relaxation Properties of Water Saturated Sandstones. SPE FormEval 3 (3): 626. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15643-PA.
Kim, I.C., Cule, I.C.K.D., and Torquato, S. 2000. Comment on "WalkerDiffusion Method for Calculation of Transport Properties of CompositeMaterials". Phys. Rev. E 61: 4659.
Kleinberg, R.L. 1996. Utility of NMR T2 Distributions, Connection WithCapillary Pressure, Clay Effect, and Determination of the Surface RelaxivityParameter R2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 14: 761.
Knackstedt, M.A., Arns, C.H., Limaye, A. et al. 2004. Digital CoreLaboratory: Properties of Reservoir Core Derived From 3D Images. Paper SPE87009 presented at the Asia Pacific Conference on Integrated Modelling forAsset Management meeting, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 29-30 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87009-MS.
Kulkarni, R., Watson, A.T., and Nordtvedt, J.E. 1998. Estimation of PorousMedia Flow Functions Using NMR Imaging Data. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 16: 707.
LaTorraca, G. and Dunn, K.J. 1995. Magnetic Susceptibility Contrast Effecton NMR T2 Logging. Paper presented at the SPWLA 36th Annual Logging Symposium,June.
Ma, C. and Eggleton, R.A. 1999. Cation Exchange Capacity of Kaolinite.Clays and Clay Minerals 47 (2): 174-180.
Mendelson, K.S. 1990. Percolation Model of Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation inPorous Media. Phys. Rev. B 41: 562.
Potter, D.K., AlGhamdi, T.M., and Ivakhnenko, O.P. 2008. Sensitive CarbonateReservoir Rock Characterization From Magnetic Susceptibility: MineralQuantification, Correlation With Petrophysical Properties, and Anisotropy.Paper presented at theInternational Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts,Abu Dhabi.
Prammer, M.G. 1994. NMR Pore Size Distributions and Permeability at the WellSite. Paper SPE 28368 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 25-28 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28368-MS.
Rothwell, W.P. and Vinegar, H.J. 1985. Petrophysical Applications of NMRImaging. Appl. Opt. 24: 3969-3972.
Rueslatten, H., Eidesmo, T., Slot-Petersen, C. et al. 1998. NMR Studies ofan Iron-Rich Sandstone Oil Reservoir. Paper SCA-9821 presented at theInternational Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, The Hague.
Sakellariou, A., Arns, C.H., Sheppard, A.P. et al. 2007. MaterialsToday 10 (12): 44-51.
Seevers, D. 1966. A Nuclear Magnetic Method for Determining the Permeabilityof Sandstones. Paper presented at the SPWLA 7th Annual Logging Symposium.
Sen, P.N., Straley, C., Kenyon, W.E. et al. 1990. Surface-to-Volume Ratio,Charge Density, Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation, and Permeability in Clay-BearingSandstones. Geophysics 55 (1): 61-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1442772.
Shan, X. and Chen, H. 1993. Lattice Boltzmann Model for Simulating FlowsWith Multiple Phases and Components. Phys. Rev. E 47:1815.
Sheppard, A.P., Sok, R.M., and Averdunk, H. 2004. Techniques for ImageEnhancement and Segmentation of Tomographic Images of Porous Materials.Physica A 339: 145.
Straley, C., Morriss, C.E., Kenyon, W.E. et al. 1991. NMR in PartiallySaturated Rocks: Laboratory Insights on Free Fluid Index and Comparison WithBorehole Logs. Paper presented at the SPWLA 32th Annual Logging Symposium,June.
Straley, C., Rossini, D., Vinegar, H. et al. 1994. Paper SCA-9404 CoreAnalysis by Low Field NMR.
Strange, J.H., Webber, J.B.W., and Schmidt, S.D. 1996. Pore SizeDistribution Mapping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 14:803.
Sun, B. and Dunn, K.J. 2004. Methods and Limitations of NMR Data Inversionfor Fluid Typing. J. Magn. Res. 169: 118.
Talabi, O. 2008. Pore Scale Simulation of NMR Response in Porous Media. PhDthesis, London Imperial College.
Tessier, J.J. and Packer, K.J. 1998. The Characterization of MultiphaseFluid Transport in a Porous Solid by Pulsed Gradient Stimulated Echo NuclearMagnetic Resonance. Phys. Fluids 10: 75.
Timur, A. 1969. Effective Porosity and Permeability of SandstonesInvestigated Through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Principles. The LogAnalyst 10: 3.
Toumelin, E., Chen, S., Fischer, D.M. et al. 2003a. Reconciling NMRMeasurements and Numerical Simulations: Assessment of Temperature and DiffusiveCoupling Effects on Two-Phase Carbonate Samples. Petrophysics 44 (2): 91.
Toumelin, E.,Chen, S., and Torres-Verdín, C. 2003b. Modeling of MultipleEcho-Time NMR Measurements for Complex Pore Geometries and MultiphaseSaturations. SPE Res Eval & Eng 6 (4): 234-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/85635-PA.
Valckenborg, R.M.E., Huinink, H.P., Sande, J.J. et al. 2002. Random-WalkSimulations of NMR Dephasing Effects Due to Uniform Magnetic-Field Gradients ina Pore. Phys. Rev. E 65: 21306.
Westphal, H., Surholt, I., Kiesl, C. et al. 2005. NMR Measurements inCarbonate Rocks: Problems and an Approach to a Solution. Pure and AppliedGeophysics 162: 549.
Xue, S. 2004. Toward Improved Methods for Determining Porous MediaMultiphase Flow Functions. PhD thesis, Texas AM University.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.