Investigation of Abrasive-Laden-Fluid Method For Perforation and Fracture Initiation
- Forrest C. Pittman (Halliburton Co.) | Don W. Harriman (Halliburton Co.) | James C. St. John (Halliburton Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- May 1961
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 489 - 495
- 1961. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.2.2 Perforating, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 3.2.4 Acidising, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.14 Casing and Cementing
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This paper mentions briefly the history of hydraulic jetting as applied to perforating and fracture initiation. It points out the advantages of hydraulic perforation and undercutting as an aid for creating a fracture at the point desired rather than depending upon the weakest point in the formation for breakdown.
It describes early experimental work with jet nozzles in search of better nozzle materials. The effect of splash-back damage and its subsequent influence on jet body and tool design during this work is discussed.
A series of cutting-rate curves for jets cutting steel and steel-cement-formation combinations is presented to show the effect of hydrostatic head and the point of diminishing returns with respect to cutting time.
There is a series of photographs showing various types of rock formation in which perforation and undercutting tests were made. These stones were drilled and the casing cemented in place as in an actual well. The casing was perforated and circularly cut as if preparing for a fracturing job.
The conclusion reached in the paper is that hydraulic jetting with sand-laden fluid can be used for perforating and undercutting casing, cement and formation rock for the intended purpose of inducing the formation to fracture at a desired point.
Hydraulic jetting as a means of cleaning a formation during acidizing has been used for many years. The acid-jet gun was used to clean formation and for drilling cement from casing with acid. This tool was dropped to a seating ring installed on the tubing and could be retrieved by reverse circulation or wire line. In this process, the fluids were directed against the formation to clean and penetrate beyond the mud-damaged area. After the development of the hydraulic fracturing process, interest in jetting the formation with abrasive-laden fluid was renewed. The cutting action of abrasive fluid on pumping equipment, which is a well known problem, has been utilized to perforate and undercut casing, tubing and formation. In this process, surface areas are provided in the formation on which the fracturing pressures may work to produce a fracture at the location desired.
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