- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Wanted Dead or Live: Crude-Cocktail Viscosity--A Pseudocomponent Method to Predict the Viscosity of Dead Oils, Live Oils, and Mixtures
- Harvey Yarranton (University of Calgary) | Johan van Dorp (Shell Canada Limited) | Marco Verlaan (Shell Canada Limited) | Vaclav Lastovka (Shell Chemicals Americas Incorporated)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- May 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 176 - 191
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 576 since 2007
- Show more detail
A broadly applicable methodology is presented to reliably predict crude-oil-liquid viscosity from a gas-chromatographic (GC)-assay composition only (C30+ is recommended). The viscosity model employs a Walther-type correlation of double-log viscosity with log temperature to predict the viscosity of dead and live crude oils and mixtures. The model has three parameters: the slope and intercept of the Walther plot and a viscosibility factor to account for pressure effects. Simple mass-based mixing rules are applied on these three parameters to obtain mixture viscosity. The three parameters were correlated to component molecular weight (MW); therefore, a gas-chromatographic assay is the only required input apart from the temperature and pressure. The methodology was developed from a western Canadian (WC) data set of two bitumens, one heavy oil, and one condensate, and then tested on an independent data set of 10 conventional and heavy crude oils from the Gulf of Mexico, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. The model provides untuned viscosity predictions within a factor of two of the measured values for dead and live crude oils ranging in viscosity from 0.5 to 500 000 mPa·s. A single multiplier is used to tune the model. Models tuned to dead-oil data predict live-oil viscosities and those of mixtures of oils with solvents to within 30% of the measured values. Models tuned to the viscosity at the saturation pressure predict the effect of temperature and pressure to within 20% of the measured values. The method retains its accuracy when components are lumped into a few pseudocomponents and is suited ideally for use in simulators for accurate liquid-phase viscosity predictions over a wide range of compositions, pressures, and temperatures. It would be necessary to include the proposed mixing rules in numerical simulators. An additional advantage of the method is the reduction in viscosity measurements needed to construct an accurate viscosity model.
Al-Besharah, J.M., Salman, O.A., and Akashah, S.A. 1987. Viscosity of crudeoil blends. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 26 (12): 2445-2449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00072a010.
Arrhenius, S. 1887. Uber die Dissociation der in Wassergelösten Stoffe. Z Phys. Chem. 1: 631-648.
Badamchi-Zadeh, A., Yarranton, H.W., Svrcek, W.Y. et al. 2009. PhaseBehaviour and Physical Property Measurements for VAPEX Solvents: Part I.Propane and Athabasca Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 48 (1):54-61. PETSOC-09-01-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-01-54.
Baird, C.T. IV. 1989. Guide To Petroleum Product Blending. Flagstaff,Arizona: HPI Consultants, Inc.
Baltatu, M.E. 1982. Prediction of the liquid viscosity forpetroleum fractions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 21(1): 192-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i200016a034.
Baltatu, M.E., Chong, R.A., and Huber, M.L. 1996.Viscosity of defined and undefined hydrocarbon liquids calculated using anextended corresponding-states model. Int. J. Thermophys. 17(1): 213-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01448223.
Barrufet, M.A. and Setiadarma, A. 2003. Reliable heavy oil-solvent viscositymixing rules for viscosities up to 450 K, oil-solvent viscosity ratios up to 4x 105, and any solvent proportion. Fluid Phase Equilibria 213 (1-2): 65-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(03)00285-1.
Bingham, E.C. 1913. The Viscosity of Binary Mixtures. TheJournal of Physical Chemistry 18 (2): 157-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j150146a005.
Chevalier, J.L.E., Petrino, P.J., and Gaston-Bonhomme,Y.H. 1990. Viscosity and density of some aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatichydrocarbons binary liquid mixtures. J. Chem. Eng. Data 35(2): 206-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je00060a034.
Cragoe, C.S. 1933. Changes in the Viscosity of Liquids withTemperature, Pressure and Composition. Proc., 1st World PetroleumCongress, London, 18-24 July, 529-541, Paper WPC 201.
Daubert, T.E. and Danner, R.P. 1997. API Technical DataBook—Petroleum Refining, 6th edition. Washington, DC: American PetroleumInstitute (API).
Ely, J.F. and Hanley, H.J.M. 1981. Prediction of transportproperties. 1. Viscosity of fluids and mixtures. Industrial &Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals 20 (4): 323-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i100004a004.
Ely, J.F. 1984. Application of Extended Corresponding StatesModel to Hydrocarbon Mixtures. Proc., 63rd Annual GPA Convention, NewOrleans, March 1984, 9-17.
Gates, I.D. 2007. Oil Phase Viscosity Behaviour inExpanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 59 (1-2): 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.03.006.
Hosseininejad Mohebati, M., Maini, B.B., and Harding,T.G. 2010. Numerical Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Additives to Steam in the SAGDProcess. J Can Pet Technol 49 (9): 42-55. SPE-140338-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140338-PA.
Jacobs, F.A., Donnelly, J.K., and Stanislav, J. 1980.Viiscosity of Gas-saturated Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 19(4): 46-50. PETSOC-80-04-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80-04-03.
Jacobs, S.A. 1978. Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide SaturatedAthabasca Bitumen. MSc thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
Kendall, J. and Monroe, K.P. 1917. The Viscosity of Liquids II:The Viscosity-Composition Curve for Ideal Liquid Mixtures. J. Am. Chem.Soc. 39 (9): 1787-1802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja02254a001.
Larter, S., Adams,J., Gates, I.D. et al. 2008. The Origin, Prediction and Impact of Oil ViscosityHeterogeneity on the Production Characteristics of Tar Sand and Heavy OilReservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 47 (1): 52-61. JCPT Paper No.08-01-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/08-01-52.
Lederer, E.L. 1933. Viscosity of Mixtures with and withoutDiluents. In Proceedings of the First World Petroleum Congress, Vol. 2,526-528. London: World Petroleum Council.
Lobe, V.M. 1973. A Model for the Viscosity of Liquid-LiquidMixtures. MSc thesis, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
Lohrenz, J., Bray, B.G., and Clark, C.R. 1964.Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids From Their Compositions. J PetTechnol 16 (10): 1171-1176. SPE-915-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/915-PA.
McFarlane, R. and Bioletti, R. 2002. Assessment of HYSYS forEstimating Oil Properties for In Situ Recovery. Technical Report No. 0102-12,AERI/ARC Core Industry Research Program, Edmonton, Alberta (March 2002).
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1982. Correlations for Properties of BitumenSaturated with CO2, CH4, and N2 and Experiments with Combustion Gas Mixtures.J Can Pet Technol 21 (6): 95-104.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1984. Measurement and Correlation ofViscosity, Density and Gas Solubility for Marguerite Lake Bitumen Saturatedwith Carbon Dioxide. AOSTRA J. Res. 1 (1): 51-62.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1985a. Viscosity, Density andGas Solubility Data for Oil Sand Bitumens. Part I: Athabasca Bitumen Saturatedwith CO and C2H6. AOSTRA J. Res. 1 (4): 263-268.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1985b. Viscosity, Density andGas Solubility Data for Oil Sand Bitumens. Part II: Peace River BitumenSaturated with N2, CO, CH4, CO2, and C2H6. AOSTRA J. Res. 1(4): 269-279.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1985c. Viscosity, Density andGas Solubility Data for Oil Sand Bitumens. Part III: Wabasca Bitumen Saturatedwith with N2, CO, CH4, CO2, and C2H6. AOSTRA J. Res. 2 (2):83-93.
Mehrotra, A.K., Eastick, R.R., and Svrcek, W.Y. 1989.Viscosity of Cold Lake Bitumen and Its Fractions. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 67: 1004-1009.
Mehrotra, A.K. 1990. Development of Mixing Rules for Predictingthe Viscosity of Bitumen and Its Fractions Blended with Toluene. Can. J.Chem. Eng. 68: 839-848.
Mehrotra, A.K. 1992. Mixing Rules for Predicting the Viscosityof Bitumens Saturated with Pure Gases. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 70:165-172.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1986. Viscosity of CompressedAthabasca Bitumen. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 64: 844-847.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1987. Viscosity of CompressedCold Lake Bitumen. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 65: 672-675.
Mehrotra, A.K. and Svrcek, W.Y. 1988. Properties of Cold LakeBitumen Saturated with Pure Gases and Gas Mixtures. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 66: 656-665.
Miadonye, A., Latour, N., and Puttagunta, V.R. 2000. ACorrelation for Viscosity and Solvent Mass Fraction of Bitumen-DiluentMixtures. Petroleum Science and Technology 18 (1-2): 1-14.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460008949828.
Motahhari, H.R., Schoeggl, F., Satyro, M.A. et al. 2011.Prediction of the Viscosity of Solvent Diluted Live Bitumen at Temperatures upto 175°C. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference,Calgary, 15-17 November. SPE-149405-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149405-MS.
NIST Standard Reference Database; NIST/TRC Source Database;WinSource, Version 2008.
Oldenburg, T.B.P., Yarranton, H.W., and Larter, S. 2010.The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Multifunctional Additives on Heavy OilViscosity. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and InternationalPetroleum Conference, Calgary, 19-21 October. SPE-137505-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137505-MS.
Pedersen, K.S. and Fredenslund, A. 1987. An ImprovedCorresponding States Model for the Prediction of Oil and Gas Viscosities andThermal Conductivities. Chem. Eng. Sci. 42: 182-186.
Rahmes, M.H. and Nelson, W.L. 1948. Viscosity BlendingRelationships of Heavy Petroleum Oils. Anal. Chem. 20 (10):912-915. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac60022a012.
Riazi, M.R. 2005. Characterization and Properties of PetroleumFractions. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM.
Shu, W.R. 1984. A Viscosity Correlation for Mixtures of HeavyOil, Bitumen, and Petroleum Fractions. SPE J. 24 (3):277-282. SPE-11280-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11280-PA.
Svrcek, W.Y. and Mehrotra, A.K. 1989. Properties Of Peace River BitumenSaturated With Field Gas Mixtures. J Can Pet Technol 28(2): 50-56. PETSOC-89-02-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89-02-01.
Svrcek, W.Y. and Mehrotra, A.K. 1988. One Paramter CorrelationFor Bitumen Viscosity. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 66 (4):323-327.
Walther, C. 1931. The Evaluation of Viscosity Data. ErdolTeer 7: 382-384.
Yarranton, H.W. and Satyro, M.A. 2009. Expanded Fluid-BasedViscosity Correlation for Hydrocarbons. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48 (7): 3640-3648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie801698h.
Yazdani, A. and Maini, B.B. 2010. Measurements and Modelling of PhaseBehaviour and Viscosity of a Heavy Oil/Butane System. J Can Pet Technol 49 (2): 9-14. SPE-132484-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132484-PA.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.