A Mathematical Model Water Movement about Bottom-Water-Drive Reservoirs
- Keith H. Coats (The U. Of Michigan)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- March 1962
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 44 - 52
- 1962. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.10.2 Natural Gas Storage, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods
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This paper presents the development and solution of a mathematical model for aquifer water movement about bottom-water-drive reservoirs. Pressure gradients in the vertical direction due to water flow are taken into account. A vertical permeability equal to a fraction of the horizontal permeability is also included in the model. The solution is given in the form of a dimensionless pressure-drop quantity tabulated as a function of dimensionless time. This quantity can be used in given equations to compute reservoir pressure from a known water-influx rate, to predict water- in flux rate (or cumulative amount) from a reservoir- pressure schedule or to predict gas reservoir pressure and pore-volume performance from a given gas-in-place schedule. The model is applied in example problems to gas-storage reservoirs, and the difference between reservoir performances predicted by the thick sand model of this paper and the horizontal, radial-flow model is shown to be appreciable.
The calculation of aquifer water movement into or out of oil and gas reservoirs situated on aquifers is important in pressure maintenance studies, material-balance and well-flooding calculations. In gas storage operations, a knowledge of the water movement is especially important in predicting pressure and pore-volume behavior. Throughout this paper the term "pore volume" denotes volume occupied by the reservoir fluid, while the term "flow model" refers to the idealized or mathematical representation of water flow in the reservoir-aquifer system. The prediction of water movement requires selection of a flow model for the reservoir-aquifer system. A physically reasonable flow model treated in detail to date is the radial-flow model considered by van Everdingen and Hurst. In many cases the reservoir is situated on top of the aquifer with a continuous horizontal interface between reservoir fluid and aquifer water and with a significant depth of aquifer underlying the reservoir. In these cases, bottom-water drive will occur, and a three-dimensional model accounting for the pressure gradient and water flow in the vertical direction should be employed. This paper treats such a model in detail--from the description of the model through formulation of the governing partial differential equation to solution of the equation and preparation of tables giving dimensionless pressure drop as a function of dimensionless time. The model rigorously accounts for the practical case of a vertical permeability equal to some fraction of the horizontal permeability. The pressure-drop values can be used in given equations to predict reservoir pressure from a known water-influx rate or to predict water-influx rate (or cumulative amount) when the reservoir pressure is known. The inclusion of gravity in this analysis is actually trivial since gravity has virtually no effect on the flow of a homogeneous, slightly compressible fluid in a fixed-boundary system subject to the boundary conditions imposed in this study. Thus, if the acceleration of gravity is set equal to zero in the following equations, the final result is unchanged. The pressure distribution is altered by inclusion of gravity in the analysis, but only by the time-constant hydrostatic head. The equations developed are applied in an example case study to predict the pressure and pore-volume behavior of a gas storage reservoir. The prediction of reservoir performance based on the bottom-water-drive model is shown to differ significantly from that based on van Everdingen and Hurst's horizontal-flow model.
DESCRIPTION OF FLOW MODEL
The edge-water-drive flow model treated by van Everdingen and Hurst is shown in Fig. 1a. The aquifer thickness is small in relation to reservoir radius water invades or recedes from the field at the latter's edges, and only horizontal radial flow is considered as shown in Fig. 1b. The bottom-water-drive reservoir-aquifer system treated herein is sketched in Fig. 2a and 2b.
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