Pressure-Dependent Natural-Fracture Permeability in Shale and Its Effect on Shale-Gas Well Production
- Younki Cho (Colorado School of Mines) | Erdal Ozkan (EOG Resources) | Osman G. Apaydin (Colorado School of Mines)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 216 - 228
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.4 Shale Oil, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.5.8 History Matching, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.8.2 Shale Gas
- 26 in the last 30 days
- 3,330 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
This paper presents an investigation of the effect of pressure-dependent natural-fracture permeability on production from shale-gas wells. The motivation of the study is to provide data for the discussion of whether it is crucial to pump proppant into natural fractures in shale plays. Experiments have been conducted on Bakken-shale core samples to select appropriate correlations to represent fracture conductivity as a function of pressure (the actual characterization of fracture conductivity under stress for a specific formation is not an objective of the study). Correlations have been used in a flow model to demonstrate the potential impact of natural-fracture closure as pressure drops during production. Although the correlations indicate up to an 80% reduction in fracture permeability over practical ranges of pressure, the results of the flow model do not warrant the claims that fracture closing plays a significant role in the productivity losses of shale gas wells. A history match of the performances of two wells in the Barnett and Haynesville formations also indicates that the effect of pressure-dependent natural-fracture permeability on shale-gas-well production is a function of the permeability of the matrix system. If the matrix system is too tight, then the retained permeability of the natural fractures may still be sufficient for the available volume of the fluid when the system pressure drops.
|File Size||701 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Alamdari, B.B. 2011. Viability of Matrix-Fracture Transfer Functions forDilute Surfactant-Augmented Waterflooding in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs.PhD dissertation. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Al-Hussainy, R., Ramey, H.J., and Crawford, P.B. 1966. The Flow of RealGases Through Porous Media. J. Pet Tech 18 (5): 624-636. http://dx.doi.org/dx.doi.org/10.2118/1243-A-PA.
Anderson, D.M., Nobakht, M., Moghadam, S. et al. 2010. Analysis ofProduction Data From Fractured Shale Gas Wells. Paper SPE 131787 presented atthe SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 23-25February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131787-MS.
Apaydin, O.G. 2012. New Coupling Considerations Between Matrix andMultiscale Natural Fractures in Unconventional Resource Reservoirs, PhDdissertation. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Baghbanan, A. and Jing, L. 2008. Stress Effects on Permeability in aFractured Rock Mass With Correlated Fracture Length and Aperture. Int. J.Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 45 (8): 1320-1334. http://dx.doi.org/10.16/j.ijrmms.2008.01.015.
Barton, N., Bandis, S., and Bakhtar, K. 1985. Strength, Deformation andConductivity Coupling of Rock Joints. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 22 (3): 121-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/.0148-9062(85)93227-9.
Best, M.E. 1995. Shale Permeability and Its Significance in HydrocarbonExploration. Geophysics 14 (3): 165-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1437104.
Brown, M., Ozkan, E., Raghavan, R. et al. 2011. Practical Solutions forPressure Transient Responses of Fractured Horizontal Wells in UnconventionalShale Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (6): 663-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125043-PA
Celis, V., Silva, R., Ramones, M. et al. 1994. A New Model for PressureTransient Analysis in Stress Sensitive Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPEAdvanced Technology Series 2 (1): 126-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23668-PA.
Chin, L.Y., Raghavan, R., and Thomas, L.K. 2000a. Fully Coupled Analysis ofWell Responses in Stress-Sensitive Reservoirs. Paper SPE 66222 presented at SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 27-30September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/66222-MS.
Chin, L.Y., Raghavan, R., and Thomas, L.K. 2000b. Fully Coupled Geomechanicsand Fluid-Flow Analysis of Wells With Stress-Dependent Permeability. Paper SPE58968 presented at the SPE International Conference and Exhibition, Beijing,China, 2-6 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/58968-MS.
Cho, Y. 2012. Effects of Stress-Dependent Natural-Fracture Permeability onShale-Gas Well Production, MSc Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden,Colorado.
Core Labs. 2012. http://www.corelab.com/rd/instruments/routine/routine.aspx?ename=cms300&mnuSect=routMeas,accessed on June 10, 2012.
Durham, W.B. 1997. Laboratory Observations of the Hydraulic Behavior of aPermeable Fracture From 3800 M Depth in the KTB Pilot Hole. J. GeophysicalRes. 102: 18405-18416.
Engelder, T. 1987. Joints and Shear Fractures in Rock.In FractureMechanics of Rock, ed. B.K. Atkinson, London: Academic Press, 27-69.
Franquet, M., Ibrahim, M., Wattenbarger, R.A. et al. 2004. Effect ofPressure-Dependent Permeability in Tight Gas Reservoirs, Transient Radial Flow.Paper SPE 2004-089 presented at the Canadian International PetroleumConference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1-8 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2004-089-MS.
Gale, J.F., Lander, R.H., Reed, R.M. et al. 2010, Modeling Fracture PorosityEvolution in Dolostone. J. Structural Geol. 32 (9):1201-1211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2009.04.018.
Gale, J.F.W., Reed, R.M., and Holder, J. 2007. Natural Fractures in theBarnett Shale and Their Importance for Hydraulic Fracture Treatments. AAPGBull. 91: 603-622.
Gutierrez, M., Øino, L.E., and Nygård, R. 2000. Stress-DependentPermeability of a De-Mineralised Fracture in Shale. Mar.Petrol. Geol. 17 (8): 895-907. http://dx.doi.org/10.16/S0264-8172(00)00027-1.
Kwon, O., Kronenberg, A.K., Gangi, A.F. et al. 2004. Permeability ofIllite-Bearing Shale: 1. Anisotropy and Effects of Clay Content and Loading.J. Geophysical Res. 109 (B10): 205
Laubach, S.E., Olson, J.E., and Gale, J.F.W. 2004a. Are Open FracturesNecessarily Aligned With Maximum Horizontal Stress? Earth and Planetary Sci.Lett. 222: 191-195.
Laubach, S.E., Reed, R.M., Olson, J.E. et al. 2004b. Coevolution ofCrack-Seal Texture and Fracture Porosity in Sedimentary Rocks:Cathodoluminescence Observations of Regional Fractures. J. Structural Geol. 26 (5): 967-982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2003.08.019.
Miller, R.S., Conway, M., and Salter, G. 2010. Pressure-DependentPermeability in Shale Reservoirs Implications for Estimated Ultimate Recovery.Paper AAPG Search and Discovery 90122Ó2011 presented at the AAPG HedbergConference, Austin, Texas, 5-10 December.
Min, K., Rutqvist, J., Tsang, C. et al. 2004. Stress-DependentPermeability of Fractured Rock Masses: A Numerical Study. Int. J. Rock Mech.Min. Sci. 41 (7): 1191-1210. http://dx.doi.org/10.16/j.ijrmms.2004.05.005.
Minkoff, S.E., Stone, C.M., Bryant, S. et al. 2003. Coupled Fluid Flow andGeomechanical Deformation Modeling. J. Petrol. Sci.Eng. 38 (1-2): 37-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(03)0021-4.
Olson, J.E, Laubach, S.E., and Lander, R.H. 2009. Natural FractureCharacterization in Tight Gas Sandstones: Integrating Mechanics and Diagenesis.AAPG Bull. 93 (11): 1535-1549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/08110909100.
Ozkan, E., Brown, M., Raghavan, R. et al. 2011. Comparison of FracturedHorizontal-Well Performance in Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs.SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (2): 248-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121290-PA.
Ozkan, E., Raghavan, R., and Apaydin, O.G. 2010. Modeling of Fluid TransferFrom Shale Matrix to Fracture Network. Paper SPE 134830 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22September.
Palmer, I., Moschovidis, Z., and Cameron, J. 2007. Modeling Shear Failureand Stimulation of the Barnett Shale After Hydraulic Fracturing. Paper SPE106113 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, CollegeStation, Texas, 29-31 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106113-MS.
Pedrosa Jr., O.A. 1986. Pressure Transient Response in Stress-SensitiveFormations, Paper SPE 15115 presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting,Oakland, California, 2-4 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15115-MS.
Raghavan, R. and Chin, L.Y. 2002. Productivity Changes in Reservoirs WithStress-Dependent Permeability. Paper SPE 77535 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September-2October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77535-MS.
Rutqvist, J., Wu, Y.S., Tsang, C.F. et al. 2002. A Modeling Approach forAnalysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Deformation inFractured Porous Rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 39:429-442
Sayers, C.M., Taleghani, A.D., and Adachi, J. 2009. The Effect ofMineralization on the Ratio of Normal to Tangential Compliance of Fractures.Geophysical Prospecting 57 (3): 439-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2478.2008.00746x.
Sturm, S.D. and Gomez, E. 2009. Role of Natural Fracturing in ProductionFrom the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota. Search and DiscoveryArticle #50199 adapted from poster presentation at the AAPG Annual Conventionand Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 7-10 June.
Tao, Q., Ehlig-Economides, C.A., and Ghassemi, A. 2009. Investigation ofStress-Dependent Permeability in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Using a FullyCoupled Poroelastic Displacement Discontinuity Model. Paper SPE 124745presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans,Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124745-MS.
Tao, Q., Ghassemi, A., and Ehlig-Economides, C.A. 2010. Pressure TransientBehavior for Stress-Dependent Fracture Permeability in Naturally FracturedReservoirs. Paper SPE 131666 presented at the International Oil and GasConference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, China, 8-10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131666-MS.
Vega Navarro, O.G. 2012. Closure of Natural Fractures Caused by IncreasedEffective Stress, A Case Study: Reservoir Robore III, Bulo Bulo Field, Bolivia.Paper SPE 153609 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean PetroleumEngineering Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, 16-18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153609-MS.
Wang, J. and Liu, Y. 2011. Simulation Based Well Performance Modeling inHaynesville Shale Reservoir. Paper SPE 142740 presented at the SPE Productionand Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 27-29 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142740-MS.
Wang, F.P. and Reed, R.M. 2009. Pore Networks and Fluid Flow in Gas Shales.Paper SPE 124253 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124253-MS.
Xiangjiao, X., Hedong, S., YongXin, H. et al. 2009. DynamicCharacteristic Evaluation Methods of Stress Sensitive Abnormal High PressureGas Reservoir. Paper SPE 124415 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124415-MS.