3D Modeling of Multistage Hydraulic Fractures and Two-Way-Coupling Geomechanics/Fluid-Flow Simulation of a Horizontal Well in the Nikanassin Tight Gas Formation, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin
- Laureano Gonzalez (University of Calgary) | Gaisoni Nasreldin (Schlumberger) | Jose A. Rivero (Schlumberger) | Pete Welsh (Schlumberger) | Roberto Aguilera (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 257 - 270
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.5.4 Multistage Fracturing, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology
- coupled geomechanics, fluid flow simulation
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 685 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Unconventional gas is stored in extensive areas known as basin centered continuous-gas accumulations. Although the estimated worldwide figures differ significantly, the consensus among the studies relating to unconventional gas resources is that the volumes are gigantic. However, the low permeability in these types of reservoirs usually results in a very low recovery factor.To help unlock these resources, this paper presents a new and more accurate way of simulating multistage hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells in three dimensions by use of single- and dual-porosity reservoir models. In this approach, the geometry (not necessarily symmetric) and orientation of the multiple hydraulic fractures are driven by the prevailing stress state in the drainage volume of the horizontal well. Once the hydraulic-fracturing job is accurately modeled in three dimensions, two-way geomechanical coupling is used to history match the produced gas from a horizontal well drilled in the Nikanassin naturally fractured tight gas formation of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Traditionally, the most widely used approaches have their roots in semianalytical calculations simplifying the fracturing system to a planar feature propagating symmetrically away from a line source of injection. In contrast, the computed results presented in this study show that the incorporation of geomechanical effects gives a more realistic representation of the orientation and geometry of hydraulic fractures. Reduction in permeability of the natural and hydraulic fractures because of pressure depletion results in more-realistic production predictions compared with the case in which geomechanical effects are ignored. The telling conclusion, in light of the computed results, is that the field of hydraulic fracturing provides an object lesson in the need for coupled 3D geomechanical approaches. The method presented in this paper will help to improve gas rates and recoveries from reservoirs with permeability values in the nanodarcy scale.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Aguilera, R. 2008. Role of Natural Fractures and Slot Porosity on Tight Gas Sands. Paper SPE 114174 presented at the 2008 SPE Unconventional Reservoirs Conference, Keystone, Colorado, 10–12 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114174-MS.
Aguilera, R. 2010. A Method for Estimating Hydrocarbon Cumulative Production Distribution of Individual Wells in Naturally Fractured Carbonates, Sandstones, Shale Gas, Coalbed Methane and Tight Gas Formations. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 49 (8): 53–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139846-PA.
Aguilera, R. and Harding, T.G. 2011. GFREE Research Program. Paper SPE 147282 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October–2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147282-MS.
Bagheri, M. and Settari, A. 2008. Modeling of Geomechanics in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (1): 108–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93083-PA.
Canada Society for Unconventional Gas (CSUG). 2009. Shale Gas Resource Plays in North America: Opportunities and Challenges. Presentation given at NBF Energy Services Conference.
Canadian Society for Unconventional Resources (CSUR). 2012. Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources in Alberta: Opportunities and Challenges. Presentation given at Industry Expert Speaker Series.
Chang, C., Zoback, M.D. and Khaksar, A. 2005. Empirical Relations between Rock Strength and Physical Properties in Sedimentary Rocks. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 51 (3–4): 223–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.01.003.
Contreras, O.M. 2011. An Innovative Approach for Pore Pressure Prediction and Drilling Optimization in the Abnormally Sub-Pressured “Deep Basin” of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Master’s thesis, University of Calgary, Canada (2011).
Contreras, O., Hareland, G. and Aguilera, R. 2012. An Innovative Approach for Pore Pressure Prediction and Drilling Optimization in an Abnormally Subpressured Basin. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (4): 531–545. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148947-PA.
Daneshy, A.A. 2011. Hydraulic Fracturing of Horizontal Wells: Issues and Insights. Paper SPE 140134 presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, Woodlands, Texas, 24–26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140134-MS.
Deng, H. 2010. An Integrated Workflow for Reservoir Modeling and Flow Simulation of the Nikanassin Tight Gas Reservoir in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Master’s thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary (XX 2010).
Deng, H., Aguilera, R. and Settari, A. 2011. An Integrated Workflow for Reservoir Modeling and Flow Simulation of the Nikanassin Tight Gas Reservoir in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Paper SPE 146953 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October–2 November 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146953-MS.
Economides, M. Marongiu-Porcu, M., Yang, M., et al. 2010. Fracturing Horizontal Transverse, Horizontal Longitudinal and Vertical Wells: Criteria for Decision. Paper SPE 137328 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources & International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19–21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137328-MS.
Fjaer, E., Holt, R.M. and Raaen, A.M. 1989. Rock Mechanics and Rock Acoustics. Trondheim, Norway: Halliburton.
Gonzalez, L. 2012. Numerical 3D Modeling of Multistage Hydraulic Fractures and Two-Way Coupling Geomechanics–Fluid Flow Simulation of a Horizontal Well in the Nikanassin Tight Gas Formation (Canada). Master’s thesis, University of Calgary, Canada.
Gonzalez, L., and Aguilera, R. 2013. Effect of Natural Fracture Density on Production Variability of Individual Wells in the Tight Gas Nikanassin Formation. Paper SPE 149222 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149222-MS.
Heidbach, O., Tingay, M., Barth, A., et al. 2009. World Stress Map Project, http://dc-app3-14.gfz-potsdam.de/pub/introduction/introduction_frame.html.
Kresse, O., Cohen, C., Weng, X., et al. 2011. Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing in Formations. American Rock Mechanics Association ARMA. Paper ARMA 11-363 presented at the 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, California, 26–29 June.
Kry, P.R. and Gronseth, J.M. 1983. In-Situ Stresses and Hydraulic Fracturing in the Deep Basin. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 22 (6): XX–XX. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/83-06-02.
Law, B.E. 2002. Basin-Centered Gas Systems. AAPG Bull. 86 (11): 1891–1919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/61EEDDB4-173E-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Miles, B.D., Hubbard, S.M., Raines, K.M., et al. 2009. A Stratigraphic Framework for the Jurassic–Cretaceous Nikanassin Group, Northwestern Alberta, Canada. Oral presentation given at Frontiers+ Innovation, the 2009 CSPG CSEG CWLS Convention, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 4–8 May.
Nasreldin, G. A. 2009. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Localisation Problems Involving Strain-Softening Geomaterials. PhD dissertation, The University of Manchester, UK (2009).
Nelson, R.A. 2001. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, second edition. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.
Osorio, J.G., Chen, H.Y. and Teufel, L.W. 1999. Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Flow-Induced Geomechanical Response on the Productivity of Stress-Sensitive Reservoirs. Paper SPE 51929 presented at the 1999 SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, Texas, 14–17 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/51929-MS.
Pickett, G.R. 1963. Acoustic Character Logs and Their Applications in Formation Evaluation. J. Pet. Tech. 15 (6): 659–667. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/452-PA.
Settari, A. 2011. Reservoir Geomechanics – A Simulation Perspective. Lecture notes. Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Solano, N., Zambrano, L. and Aguilera, R. 2011. Cumulative-Gas-Production Distribution on the Nikanassin Tight Gas Formation, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (3): 357–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132923-PA.
Stott, D.F. 1998. Fernie Formation and Minnes Group (Jurassic and Lowermost Cretaceous), Northern Rocky Mountain Foothills, Alberta and British Columbia. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada.
Woodland, D.C. and Bell, J.S. 1989. IIn Situ Stress Magnitudes From Mini-Frac Records In Western Canada. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 28 (5): XX–XX. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89-05-01.
Wu, R., Kresse, O., Weng, X., et al. 2012. Modeling of Interaction of Hydraulic Fractures in Complex Fracture Networks. Paper SPE 152052 presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152052-MS.
Zhao, X., Cai, M. and Cai, M., 2010. Considerations of Rock Dilation on Modeling Failure and Deformation of Hard Rocks – A Case Study of the Mine-by Test Tunnel in Canada. J. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng. 2 (4): 338–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1235.2010.00338.