Compressibility Factors for Lean Natural Gas-Carbon Dioxide Mixtures at High Pressure
- Thomas S. Buxton (Pan American Petroleum Corp., Tulsa, Okla.) | John M. Campbell (The U. of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- March 1967
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 80 - 86
- 1967. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 4.6 Natural Gas
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The most widely used methods of predicting the volumetric properties of gas are based on the principle of corresponding states, which asserts that the compressibility factor is a universal function of reduced temperature and pressure. Previous studies have shown that the acentric factor, as proposed by Pitzer,1 is an important addition to reduced pressure and reduced temperature as factors affecting the compressibility factor. Results of this study indicate that, if the pseudocritical temperature and pressure used to determine the reduced conditions are adequately predicted, characterization of natural gas-carbon dioxide mixtures with the acentric factor will allow reliable determination of the compressibility factor.
Comparisons of predicted and experimental compressibility factors have shown that the pseudocritical constant rules of Stewart, Burkhardt and Voo2 are satisfactory for hydrocarbon mixtures. However, these rules fail to predict the pseduocritical constants for hydrocarbon-carbon dioxide mixtures. Based on graphically determined pseudocritical temperatures for binary hydrocarbon-carbon dioxide mixtures, a correlation which gives the required correction to the Stewart, Burkhardt and Voo rules was prepared and a compressibility factor prediction technique was proposed. To test the proposed technique; compressibility factors for five mixtures of methane, carbon dioxide and either ethane or propane were experimentally determined at 100, 130 and 160F and pressures up to 7,026 psia. The predicted and experimental compressibility factors for these five mixtures had an average absolute deviation of 0.55 percent.
Two-parameter generalized correlations based on the principle of corresponding states (PCS) are presently available for reliably predicting the compressibility factor of lean natural gas, i.e., natural gas with low concentrations of hydrocarbons heavier than methane. When these same correlations are used for mixtures of natural gas and carbon dioxide, large deviations between actual and predicted compressibility factors are observed. This study was undertaken to provide a means for accurately predicting the compressibility factor for such mixtures.
In the past, two avenues of approach have been employed to extend the applicability of the PCS. The first has been to introduce additional parameters. The second has been to develop combination rules for predicting pseudocritical constants which do not suffer from the limitations of the commonly used molal average constants. In this study, both of these approaches have been considered and employed to arrive at a method for predicting the compressibility factor of mixtures of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.
SELECTION OF A THIRD PARAMETER
Failure of the original PCS to predict the compressibility factor for all pure gases, regardless of their mass, shape or polar moment, has led to the introduction of additional parameters into the PCS. Parameters have been introduced to correct for quantum deviations,3-5 non-spherical or globular shapes6-9 and for polar moments.8-12 In addition to these parameters which are based on some microscopic property and intended to correct for some specific cause of deviation, more general parameters based on some bulk property have also been introduced.1,13-16 To use additional parameters to correct for each of the possible causes of deviation among the individual constituents of a gas mixture would require a rather complex form of the PCS. To maintain the PCS in as simple a form as possible, it is more desirable to have a single third parameter which is based on some bulk property influenced by several of the factors causing deviations.
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