Field-Scale Simulation of Cyclic Solvent Injection (CSI)
- Jeannine Chang (Devon Canada) | John Ivory (Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 251 - 265
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.11 Cold Heavy Oil Production (CHOPS), 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 527 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Only 5-10% of the oil in Lloydminster heavy-oil reservoirs is recovered during cold heavy-oil production with sand (CHOPS). CSI is currently the most active post-CHOPS process. In CSI, a solvent mixture (e.g., methane/propane) is injected and allowed to soak into the reservoir before production begins (Fig. 1). CSI has been focused on heavy-oil recovery from post-CHOPS reservoirs that are too thin for an economic steam-based process. It has been piloted by Nexen and Husky and was a fundamental part of the CDN40 million joint implementation of vapour extraction (JIVE) solvent pilot program that ran from 2006 through 2010. This paper describes field-scale simulations of CSI performed with a comprehensive numerical model that uses "mass-transfer" rate equations to represent nonequilibrium solvent-solubility behaviour (i.e., there is a delay before the solvent reaches its equilibrium solubility in oil). The model contains mechanisms to consider foaming or to ignore it, depending on the field behaviour. It has been used to match laboratory experiments, design CSI operating strategies, and to interpret CSI field pilot results. The paper summarizes the impact on simulation predictions of post-CHOPS reservoir characterizations where the wormhole region was represented by one of the following five configurations: (1) an effective high-permeability zone, (2) a dual-permeability zone, (3) a dilated zone around the well, (4) wormholes (20-cm-diameter spokes) extending from the well without branching, and (5) wormholes extending from the well with branching from the main wormholes. The different post-CHOPS configurations lead to dramatically different reservoir access for solvent and to different predictions of CSI performance. The impacts of grid size, upscaling, solvent dissolution and exsolution rate constants, and injection strategy were examined. The assumption of instant equilibrium solubility resulted in a 23% reduction in oil production compared with when a delay in solvent dissolution and exsolution was allowed for. Increasing the gridblock size by a factor of nine reduced the predicted oil production five-fold. Assuming isothermal behaviour in the simulations decreased predicted oil production by 17%.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Blackwell, R.J. 1962. Laboratory Studies of Microscopic DispersionPhenomena. SPE J. 2 (1): 1-8. SPE-1483-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1483-G.
Bratli, R.K. and Risnes, R. 1981. Stability and Failure of Sand Arches.SPE J. 21 (2): 236-248. SPE-8427-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8427-PA.
Bratli, R.K., Dusseault, M.B., Santarelli, F.J., and Tronvoll, J. 1998. SandManagement Protocol Increases Production Rates, Reduces Completion Costs.Presented at the 12th Biennial Business and Technology Conference, Trinidad andTobago, 10-13 March.
Chang, J. 2000. System Dynamics Approaches for Sand Production Simulationand Prediction (a Semi-Analytical Implementation). MSc thesis, Universityof Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.
Chang, J. and Ivory, J. 2011. Cyclic Solvent Injection Process for Heavy OilRecovery. Oil & Gas Review 9 (2): 35-39. http://www.touchoilandgas.com/cyclic-solvent-injection-process-a8902-1.html.
Dusseault, M.B. and El-Sayed, S. 1999. CHOP—Cold Heavy Oil Production.Presented at the 10th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Brighton,UK, 18-20 August. Poster No. 086.
Dusseault, M.B., Geilikman, M.B., and Spanos, T. 1998. Mechanisms ofMassive Sand Production in Heavy Oils. Presented at the 7th InternationalConference on Heavy Oils and Tar Sands, Beijing, 27-30 October.
Dusseault, M.B. and Santarelli, F.J. 1989. A Conceptual Model for MassiveSolids Production in Poorly Consolidated Sandstone. Proc., InternationalSymposium on Rock at Great Depth, Pau, France, 28-31 August, 789-797.
Geilikman, M.B. and Dusseault, M.B. 1997. Dynamics of Wormholes andEnhancement of Fluid Production. Presented at the 48th Annual Technical Meetingof the Petroleum Society of CIM, Calgary, 8-11 June.
Geilikman, M.B. 1999. Sand Production Caused by Foamy Oil Flow. TransportPorous Media 35 (2): 259-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1006532804609.
Ivory, J., Chang, J., Coates, R. et al. 2010. Investigation of CyclicSolvent Injection Process for Heavy Oil Recovery. J Can Pet Technol 49 (9): 22-33. SPE-140662-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140662-PA.
Kristoff, B.J., Knorr, K.D., Preston, C.K. et al. 2008. Joint Implementationof Vapour Extraction Heavy Oil Recovery Process. Presented at the World HeavyOil Congress, Edmonton, Alberta, 10-12 March. Paper 2008-468.
Neuman, S.P. 1990. Universal scaling of hydraulic conductivities anddispersivities in geologic media. Water Resour. Res. 26(8): 1749-1758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR026i008p01749.
Perkins, T.K. and Johnston, O.C. 1963. A Review of Diffusion and Dispersionin Porous Media. SPE J. 3 (1): 70-84. SPE-480-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/480-PA.
Risnes, R., Bratli, R.K., and Horsrud, P. 1982. Sand Arching—A CaseStudy. Proc., European Petroleum Conference, London, 25-28 October,313-318, EUR 310.
Sawatzky, R.P., Lillico, D.A., London, M.J. et al. 2002. Tracking ColdProduction Footprints. Presented at the Canadian International PetroleumConference, Calgary, 11-13 June. PETSOC-2002-086. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2002-086.
Sawatzky, R.P., Lillico, D.A., and Vlcsak, G. 1996. Initiation of SandProduction in the Cold Production Process. Presented at the 47th AnnualTechnical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM, Calgary, 10-12 June.
Smith, G.E. 1988. Fluid Flow and Sand Production in Heavy Oil Reservoirsunder Solution-Gas Drive. SPE Prod Eng 3 (2): 169-177.SPE-15094-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15094-PA.
Tremblay, B. 2003. Modelling of Sand Transport Through Wormholes. Presentedat the 2003 Canadian International Petroleum Conference/54th Annual TechnicalMeeting, Calgary, 10-12 June. CIPC 2003-101.
Tremblay, B., Sedgwick, G., and Vu, D. 1999. A Review of ColdProduction in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the 10th European Symposium onImproved Oil Recovery, Brighton, UK, 18-20 August.
Tremblay, B., Sedgwick, G., and Forshner, K. 1998. Modelling of SandProduction from Wells on Primary Recovery. J Can Pet Technol 37 (3): 41-50. JCPT Paper No. 98-03-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-03-03.