Effect of Temperature on VAPEX Performance
- Parnian Haghighat (University of Calgary) | Brij B. Maini (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- November 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex)
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 622 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Incorporating some heat injection along with solvent injection appears to bethe most viable option for improving the oil-drainage rate of vapour-assistedpetroleum extraction (VAPEX) in extraheavy-oil formations. This study wasintended to quantify the maximum possible increase in VAPEX drainage rate thatcan be obtained by heating the formation to a target temperature. Theexperimental phase of this study involved conducting VAPEX experiments in alarge high-pressure physical model, packed with 250-darcy sand, using propaneas the solvent. The physical model was preheated to 40, 50 and 60°C, andpropane was injected at the same test temperature but different injectionpressures to observe how injection pressure affects oil-drainage rate atelevated temperatures. In the experiments at elevated temperatures, but withoutincreasing the injection pressure, higher rate of oil production was achievedin the early stages of the process. However, a stabilized rate of oilproduction did not show pronounced improvement caused by a lower solubility ofpropane in the oil at higher temperatures. Increasing injection pressure alongwith increasing the test temperatures was successful in accelerating the oilproduction. The oil used in these experiments was found to become mobile withthe increase in temperature even without solvent dissolution. As a result, thetotal rate of oil production appeared to be controlled by two mechanisms: (1)by solvent dissolution and oil mobilization at the boundaries of the vapourchamber and (2) by pure free-fall gravity drainage beyond the vapour chamberwherever gravity head was sufficient to push the mobile oil toward theproduction well. The results of this these tests define the upper limit of oilrates achievable with heated solvent injection. They can also be used to assessthe applicability of VAPEX to warm reservoirs naturally (e.g., in Venezuela)and reservoirs with mobile oil in place.
|File Size||783 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Badamchi-Zadeh, A. 2012. Use of CO2 in VAPEX, Experimental and ModelingStudy. PhD thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Butler, R.M. and Mokrys, I.J. 1989. The Rise of Interfering SolventChambers: Solvent Analog Model of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. AOSTRA J.Res. 5 (1): 17-32.
Butler, R.M. and Mokrys, I.J. 1991. A New Process (VAPEX) for RecoveringHeavy Oils Using Hot Water and Hydrocarbon Vapour. J Can Pet Technol 30 (1): 97-106.
Cardwell, J.R. and Parsons, R.J. 1949. Gravity Drainage Theory. InTransactions of the American Institute of Mining and MetallurgicalEngineers, Vol. 179, SPE-949199-G, 199-215. Dallas, Texas: AmericanInstitute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers Inc.
Frauenfeld, T., Jossy, C., and Wang, X. 2005. Experimental Studies ofThermal Solvent Oil Recovery Process for Live Heavy Oil. Presented at theCanadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 7-9 June.PETSOC-2005-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2005-151.
Gupta, S. and Gittins, S. 2005. Christina Lake Solvent Aided Process Pilot.Presented at the Petroleum Society's 6th CIPC/56th Annual Technical Meeting,Calgary, 7-9 June. Paper No. 2005-190.
Gutek, A.M.H., Harschnitz, B., Myers, R.D. et al. 2003. Combined steam andvapor extraction process (SAVEX) for in situ bitumen and heavy oil production.US Patent No. 6,662,872.
Hagoort, J. 1980. Oil Recovery by Gravity Drainage. SPE J. 20 (3): 139-150. SPE-7424-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7424-PA.
Li, K. and Horne, R.N. 2003. Prediction of Oil Production by GravityDrainage. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Denver, 5-8 October. SPE-84184-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84184-MS.
Nasr, T.N., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H. et al. 2003. Novel ExpendingSolvent-SAGD Process ES-SAGD. J Can Pet Technol 42 (1):13-16.
Nenniger, J.E. and Gunnewiek, L. 2009. Dew Point vs Bubble Point: AMisunderstood Constraint on Gravity Drainage Processes. Presented at theCanadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 16-18 June.PETSOC-2009-065. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2009-065.
Nenniger, J. and Nenniger, E. 2008. Method and apparatus for stimulatingheavy oil production. US Patent No. 7,363,973.
Nenniger, J.E. and Dunn, S.G. 2008. How Fast is Solvent Based GravityDrainage? Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference,Calgary, 17-19 June. CIPC 2008-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2008-139.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2012. Investigation ofDifferent Models for Thermodynamic Modelling of Bitumen/Propane Mixture.CETI Journal 1 (1): 33-40. CETI 12-028.
Okazawa, T. 2009. Impact of Concentration-Dependence of DiffusionCoefficient on VAPEX Drainage Rates. J Can Pet Technol 48(2): 47-53. PETSOC-09-02-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-02-47.
Rezaei, N., Mohammadzadeh, O., and Chatzis, I. 2010. Warm VAPEX: AThermally Improved Vapor Extraction Process for Recovery of Heavy Oil andBitumen. Energy Fuels 24 (11): 5934-5946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef100749z.
Smith, J.M. and Van Ness, H.C. 1984. Introduction to Chemical EngineeringThermodynamics, sixth edition, 432-433. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Talbi, K., Kaiser, T.M.V., and Maini, B.B. 2008. ExperimentalInvestigation of CO2-Based VAPEX for Recovery of Heavy Oils and Bitumen. JCan Pet Technol 47 (4). PETSOC-08-04-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/08-04-29.
Yang, C. and Gu, Y. 2005. A Novel Experimental Technique for StudyingSolvent Mass Transfer and Oil Swelling Effect in the Vapour Extraction (VAPEX)Process. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary,7-9 June. PETSOC-2005-099. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2005-099.
Yazdani, A. and Maini, B.B. 2009. Pitfalls and Solutions in NumericalSimulation of VAPEX Experiments. Energy Fuels 23 (8):3981-3988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef900200f.
Zhao, L. 2004. Steam Alternating Solvent Process. Presented at the SPEInternational Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and Western RegionalMeeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 16-18 March. SPE-86957-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86957-MS.
Zhao, L., Nasr, T.N., Huang, H. et al. 2004. Steam Alternating SolventProcess: Lab Test and Simulation. Presented at the Canadian InternationalPetroleum Conference, Calgary, 8-10 June. PETSOC-2004-044. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2004-044.