Evaluation of Induced Thermal Pressurization in Clearwater Shale Caprock in Electromagnetic Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage Projects
- Sahar Ghannadi (University of Alberta) | Mazda Irani (RPS Energy) | Richard Chalaturnyk (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 443 - 462
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 441 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Inductive methods, such as electromagnetic steam-assisted gravity drainage(EM-SAGD), have been identified as technically and economically feasiblerecovery methods for shallow oil-sands reservoirs with overburdens of more than30 m (Koolman et al. 2008). However, in EM-SAGD projects, the caprock overlyingoil-sands reservoirs is also electromagnetically heated along with the bitumenreservoir. Because permeability is low in Alberta thermal-project caprockformations (i.e., the Clearwater shale formation in the Athabasca deposit andthe Colorado shale formation in the Cold Lake deposit), the pore pressureresulting from the thermal expansion of pore fluids may not be balanced withthe fluid loss caused by flow and the fluid-volume changes resulting from poredilation. In extreme cases, the water boils, and the pore pressure increasesdramatically as a result of the phase change in the water, which causesprofound effective-stress reduction. After this condition is established, porepressure increases can lead to shear failure of the caprock, the creation ofmicrocracks and hydraulic fractures, and subsequent caprock integrity failure.It is typically believed that low-permeability caprocks impede the transmissionof pore pressure from the reservoir, making them more resistant to shearfailure (Collins 2005, 2007). In cases of induced thermal pressurization,low-permeability caprocks are not always more resistant. In this study,analytical solutions are obtained for temperature and pore-pressure risescaused by the constant EM heating rate of the caprock. These analyticalsolutions show that pore-pressure increases from EM heating depend on thepermeability and compressibility of the caprock formation. For stiff orlow-compressibility media, thermal pressurization can cause fluid pressures toapproach hydrostatic pressure, and shear strength to approach zero forlow-cohesive-strength units of the caprock (units of the caprock with high siltand sand percentage) and sections of the caprock with pre-existing fractureswith no cohesion.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||20|
Abernethy, E.R. 1976. Production Increase of Heavy Oils by ElectromagneticHeating. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 15 (3): 9197.
AEUB Decision 99-22. 1999. Imperial Oil Resources Limited Cold LakeProduction Project Mahkeses Development.
Barranger, J. 1965. Hysteresis and Eddy-Current Losses of a TransformerLamination Viewed as an Application of the Poynting Theorem. NASA TechnicalNote D-3114.
Biot, M.A. 1941. General Theory of Three-Dimensional Consolidation. J.Appl. Phys. 12 (2): 155-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1712886.
Biot, M.A. and Willis, D.G. 1957. The Elastic Coefficients of the Theory ofConsolidation. J. Appl. Mech. 24: 594601.
Bogdanov, I., Torres, J.A., Akhlaghi, H.A. et al. 2011. The Influence ofSalt Concentration in Injected Water During Low-FrequencyElectrical-Heating-Assisted Bitumen Recovery. SPE J. 16(3): 548-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129909-PA.
Bois, A-P. and Mainguy, M. 2011. Importance of Thermal Consolidation ofShale During SAGD Process. Paper SPE 150420 presented at the SPE Heavy OilConference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12-14 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150420-MS.
Brace, W.F. and Orange, A.S. 1966. Electrical Resistivity Changes inSaturated Rock Under Stress. Science 153 (3743): 1525-1526.http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.153.3743.1525.
Brace, W.F. and Orange, A.S. 1968. Electrical Resistivity Changes inSaturated Rocks During Fracture and Frictional Sliding. J. Geophys. Res.73 (4): 1433-1445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB073i004p01433.
Butler, R.M. 1998. SAGD Comes of Age! J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 37(7): 9-12.
Carrizales, M.A., Lake, L.W., and Johns, R.T. 2008. Production Improvementof Heavy-Oil Recovery by Using Electromagnetic Heating. Paper SPE 115723presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, USA, 21-24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115723-MS.
Chute, F.S. and Vermeulen, F.E. 1988. Present and Potential Applications ofElectromagnetic Heating in the In-Situ Recovery of Oil. AOSTRA J. Res. 4: 19-33.
Chute, F.S., Vermeulen, F.E., and Cervenan, M.R. 1978. Physical Modelling ofthe Electrical Heating of the Oil Sand Deposits. Technical Report, AOSTRAAgreement No. 31, Applied Electromagnetics Group, University of Alberta.
Collins, P.M. 2005. Geomechanical Effects on the SAGD Process. Paper SPE97905 presented at the 2005 SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy OilSymposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1-3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97905-MS.
Collins, P.M. 2007. Geomechanical Effects on the SAGD Process. SPE ResEval & Eng 10 (4): 367-375. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97905-PA.
Davletbaev, A., Kovaleva, L., and Babadagli, T. 2010. Heavy Oil and BitumenRecovery Using Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Irradiation and ElectricalHeating: Theoretical Analysis and Field Scale Observations. Paper SPE presentedat the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International PetroleumConference,Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19-21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136611-MS.
Davletbaev, A., Kovaleva, L., and Babadagli, T. 2011. Mathematical Modelingand Field Application of Heavy Oil Recovery by Radio-Frequency ElectromagneticStimulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 78 (3): 646-653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.07.006.
Davletbaev, A.Y., Kovaleva, L.A., and Nasyrov, N.M. 2008. NumericalSimulation of Injection of a Solvent into a Production Well UnderElectromagnetic Action. Fluid Dyn. 43 (4): 583-589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0015462808040108.
Davletbaev, A.Y., Kovaleva, L.A., and Nasyrov, N.M. 2009. An Investigationof the Processes of Heat and Mass Transfer in a Multilayer Medium UnderConditions of Injection of a Miscible Agent with Simultaneous ElectromagneticStimulation. High Temperature 47 (4): 574-579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0018151X09040166.
Delaney, P.T. 1982. Rapid Intrusion of Magma into Wet Rock: Groundwater FlowDue To Pore Pressure Increases. J. Geophys. Res. 87 (B9):7739-7756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB087iB09p07739.
Dusseault, M.B., Bruno, M.S., and Barrera, J. 2001. Casing Shear: Causes,Cases, Cures. SPE Drill & Compl 16 (2): 98-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/72060-PA.
Dusseault, M.B. and Collins, P.M. 2008. Geomechanics Effects in ThermalProcesses for Heavy Oil Exploitation. Cdn. Soc. Exploration Geophysicists(CSEG) Recorder 33: (6): 20-23 (GeotechLinks 2333).
Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). 2010. Total E&P Canada Ltd.Surface Steam Release of May 18, 2006, Joslyn Creek SAGD Thermal Operation,ERCB Staff Review and Analysis.
Fjar, E., Holt, R.M., and Horsrud, P. et al. 2008. Petroleum RelatedRock Mechanics, second edition. Vol. 53. Amsterdam, The Netherlands:Elsevier.
Garnier, A., Saint-Marc, J., Bois, A.P. et al. 2008. A Singular MethodologyTo Design Cement Sheath Integrity Exposed to Steam Stimulation. Paper SPE117709 presented at the SPE/PS/CHOA International Thermal Operations and HeavyOil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 20-23 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117709-MS.
Government of Alberta. 2008. Alberta's Oil Sands: Resourceful.Responsible.
Government of Alberta. 2011. Alberta Oil Sands Industry (AOSID)--QuarterlyUpdate Summer 2011, Reporting on the period: March 5, 2011, to June 3, 2011, www.albertacanada.com . Posted2009.
Government of Alberta. 2012. http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/1715.asp.
Gunal, O.G. and Islam, M.R. 2000. Alteration of Asphaltic Crude Rheologywith Electromagnetic and Ultrasonic Irradiation. J. Pet. Sci.Eng. 26 (1-4): 263-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00040-1.
Haimbaugh, R.E. 2001. Practical Induction Heat Treating. MaterialsPark, Ohio: ASM International.
Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. 1966. Physics. New York: Wiley.
Handin, J., and Hager, R.V. Jr. 1957. Experimental Deformation ofSedimentary Rocks Under Confining Pressure: Tests at Room Temperature on DrySamples. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geolog. Bull. 41: 1-50.
Hiebert A.D., Vermeulen, F.E., Chute, F.S. et al. 1986. Numerical SimulationResults for the Electrical Heating of Athabasca Oil-Sand Formations. SPE ResEng 1 (1): 76-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13013-PA.
Islam, M.R., Wadadar, S.S., and Banzal, A. 1991. Enhanced Oil Recovery ofUgnu Tar Sands of Alaska Using Electromagnetic Heating with Horizontal Wells.Paper SPE 22177 presented at the International Arctic Technology Conference,Anchorage, Alaska, 29-31 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22177-MS.
Jordan, E.C. and Balmain, K.G. 1968. Electromagnetic Waves and RadiatingSystems, second edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Kasevich, R.S., Price, S.L., Faust, D.L. et al. 1994. Pilot Testing of aRadio Frequency Heating System for Enhanced Oil Recovery from DiatomaceousEarth. Paper SPE 28619 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 25-28 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28619-MS.
Khan, S., Han, H., Ansari, S. et al. 2010. An Integrated GeomechanicsWorkflow for Caprock-Integrity Analysis of a Potential Carbon Storage Site.Paper 139477 presented at the International Conference on CO2Capture, Storage, and Utilization, New Orleans, Louisiana, 10-12 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139477-MS.
Khan, S., Han, H., Ansari, S. et al. 2011. Geomechanical Modeling to AssessCaprock Integrity in Oil Sands. Paper presented at the CSPG CSEG CWLSConvention, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 9-11 May.
Koolman, M., Huber, N., Diehl, D. et al. 2008. Electromagnetic HeatingMethod to Improve Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. Paper SPE 117481 presentedat the International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary,Alberta, Canada, 20-23 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117481-MS.
Kovaleva, L., Davletbaev, A., Babadagli, T. et al. 2011. Effects ofElectrical and Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Heating on the Mass TransferProcess During Miscible Injection for Heavy-Oil Recovery. Energy andFuels 25 (2): 482-486.
Lachenbruch, A.H. 1980. Frictional Heating, Fluid Pressure, and theResistance to Fault Motion. J. Geophys. Res. 85:6097-6112.
Mase, C.W. and Smith, L. 1985. Pore-Fluid Pressures and Frictional Heatingon a Fault Surface. Pure and Appl. Geophys. 122: 583-607.
Mase, C.W. and Smith, L. 1987. Effects of Frictional Heating on the Thermal,Hydrologic, and Mechanical Response of a Fault. J. Geophys. Res.92 (B7): 6249-6272.
Matthäei, S.K. and Roberts, S.G. 1996. The Influence of Fault Permeabilityon Single-Phase Fluid Flow near Fault-Sand Intersections: Results fromSteady-State High-Resolution Models of Pressure-Driven Fluid Flow. Am.Assoc. Pet. Geolog. Bull. 80 (11): 1763-1779.
McGee, B.C.W. and Vermeulen, F.E. 2000. In-Situ Electromagnetic Heating forHydrocarbon Recovery and Environmental Remediation. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech.39 (8): 25-30. (Distinguished Authors Series)
McGee, B.C.W. and Vermeulen, F.E. 2007. The Mechanisms of Electrical Heatingfor the Recovery of Bitumen from Oil Sands J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 46(1): 28-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-01-03.
McGee, B.C.W., Vermeulen, F.E., and Yu, L. 1999a. Field Test of ElectricalHeating with Horizontal and Vertical Wells. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38(3): 46-53.
McGee, B.C.W., Vermeulen, F.E., and Yu, L. 1999b. Field Test of ElectricalHeating with Horizontal and Vertical Wells. CHOA Handbook, secondedition, 565-572. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: The Canadian Heavy OilAssociation.
McMaster, R.C. 1976. Metals Handbook, eighth edition, Vol. 11. MetalsPark, Ohio: ASM International.
Neuzil, C.E. 1994. How Permeable Are Clays and Shales? Water Resour.Res. 30 (2): 145-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/93WR02930.
Nur, A. and Byerlee, J.D. 1971. An Exact Effective Stress Law for ElasticDeformation of Rock with Fluids. J. Geophys. Res. 76 (26):6414-6419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB076i026p06414.
Ovalles, C., Fonseca, A., Lara, A. et al. 2002. Opportunities of DownholeDielectric Heating in Venezuela: Three Case Studies Involving Medium, Heavy,and Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Reservoirs. Paper SPE 78980 presented at the SPEInternational Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and InternationalHorizontal Well Technology Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 4-7 November.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78980-MS.
Popovic, Z.B. and Popovic, B.D. 2000. Introductory Electromagnetics,first edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Rudnev, V., Loveless, D., Cook, R. et al. 2003. Handbook of InductionHeating. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Marcel Dekker.
Sahin, A.Z. 1992. Transient Heat Conduction in Semi-Infinite Solid withSpatially Decaying Exponential Heat Generation. International Communicationsin Heat and Mass Transfer 19 (3): 349-358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0735-1933(92)90081-R.
Sahni, A., Kumar, M., and Knapp, R.B. 2000. Electromagnetic Heating Methodsfor Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Paper SPE 62550 presented at the SPE/AAPG WesternRegional Meeting, Long Beach, California, 19-22 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62550-MS.
Sayakhov, F.L., Kovaleva, L.A., and Nasyrov, N.M. 2002. Heat and MassTransfer in the Well-Stratum System Under the Electromagnetic Action on MassiveOil Deposits. J. Eng. Physics 75 (1): 126-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014831025835.
Skempton, A.W. 1960. Terzaghi's Concept of Effective Stress. In FromTheory to Practice in Soil Mechanics, ed. L. Bjerrum, A. Casagrande, R.B.Peck, and A.W. Skempton, pp. 42-53. New York: John Wiley.
Smith, R.J., Alinsangan, N.S., and Talebi, S. 2002. Microseismic Response ofWell Casing Failures at a Thermal Heavy Oil Operation. Paper SPE 78203presented at the SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference, Irving, Texas, 20-23October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78203-MS.
Spencer, H.L. 1987. Electromagnetic Oil Recovery Ltd., Calgary.
Spencer, H.L. 1989. Electric Heat Breaks Paraffins, Boosts Production. InEnhanced Recovery Week, 30.10-P, pp. 1-2, 54.
Spiegel, M.R. and Lipschutz, S. 2009. Vector Analysis, secondedition, Schaum's Outlines. New York: McGraw Hill.
Talebi, S., Nechtschein, S., and Boone, T.J. 1998. Seismicity and CasingFailures Due to Steam Stimulation in Oil Sands. In Seismicity Caused byMines, Fluid Injections, Reservoirs, and Oil Extraction, 219-233. Berlin,Germany: Birkhauser Basel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8804-2_13.
Total E&P Canada Ltd. 2007. Summary of Investigations into the JoslynMay 18, 2006, Steam Release, December.
Tuncay, K. and Corapcioglu, M.Y. 1995. Effective Stress Principle forSaturated Fractured Porous Media. Water Resour. Res. 31(12): 3103-3106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/95WR02764.
Uwiera-Gartner, M.M.E., Carlson, M.R., and Palmgren, C.T.S. 2011a.Evaluation of the Clearwater Formation Caprock for a Proposed, Low-Pressure,Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Pilot Project. Paper SPE 147302 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147302-MS.
Uwiera-Gartner, M.M.E., Carlson, M.R., Walters, D. et al. 2011b.Geomechanical Simulation of Caprock Performance for a Proposed, Low Pressure,Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Pilot Project. Paper SPE 148886 presented atthe Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Alberta, Canada, 15-17November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148886-MS.
Vermeulen F.E. and Chute, F.S. 1983. Electromagnetic Techniques in theIn-Situ Recovery of Heavy Oils. J. Microwave Power 18 (1):15-29.
Vermeulen, F.E., Chute, F.S., and Cervenan, M.R. 1979. Physical Modelling ofthe Electromagnetic Heating of Oil Sand and Other Earth-Type and BiologicalMaterials. Cdn. Electrical Eng. J. 4 (4): 19-28.
Vermeulen, F.E., Chute, F.S., and Mcpherson, R.G. 1988. Physical Modellingof Electrothermal Processes in Oil Sand. Alberta Oil Sands Tech. Res. J.Res. 4: 299-305.
Vermeulen, F.E. and McGee, B. 2000. In-Situ Electromagnetic Heating forHydrocarbon Recovery and Environmental Remediation J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 39 (8): 25-29.
Verruijt, A. 1984. The Theory of Consolidation. In Fundamentals ofTransport Phenomena in Porous Media, ed. J. Bear and M.Y. Corapcioglu, Vol.1, 349-368. Norwell, Massachusetts: Martinus Nijhoff.
Voltmer, D. 2007. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics 2: Quasistatics andWaves. San Rafael, California: Morgan and Claypool Publishers.
Wacker, B., Karmeileopardus, D., Trautmann, B. et al. 2011. ElectromagneticHeating for In-Situ Production of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Reservoirs. Paper SPE148932 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Alberta,Canada, 15-17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148932-MS.
Wong, R.C.K. and Chau, K.T. 2004. Casing Impairment Induced by Shear SlipAlong a Weak Layer in Shale due to Fluid (Steam) Injection. Paper SPE 06-12-02presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta,Canada, 8-10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/06-12-02.
Xie, J. and Zahacy, T.A. 2011. Understanding Cement Mechanical Behavior inSAGD Wells. Paper WHOC11-557 presented at the World Heavy Oil Congress,Edmonton, Alberta, 14-17 March.
Yuan, Y., Xu, B., and Palmgren C. 2011a. Design of Caprock Integrity inThermal Stimulation of Shallow Oil-Sands Reservoirs. Paper SPE 149371 presentedat the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada,15-17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149371-MS.
Yuan, Y., Xu, B., and Yang, B. 2011b. Geomechanics for the ThermalStimulation of Heavy Oil Reservoirs-Canadian Experience. Paper SPE 150293presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait,12-14 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150293-MS.
Zahn, M. 1979. Electromagnetic Field Theory: A Problem SolvingApproach. New York: Wiley.
Zinn, S. and Semiatin, S.L. 1988. Elements of Induction Heating: DesignControl and Applications. Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International.