Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability
- Jihoon Kim (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) | George J. Moridis (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,110 - 1,125
- 2014. Not subject to copyright. This document was prepared by government employees or with government funding that places it in the public domain.
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models
- secondary fracturing, shale gas, coupled flow and geomechanics, tight gas, enhanced permeability
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 849 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low-permeability reservoirs such as tight- and shale-gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every timestep. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, using the single- and dynamic double-porosity (dual-continuum) models. We modify the multiple-porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that the production of gas causes redistribution of the effective-stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which, in turn, causes a change in the distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, a high Biot's coefficient, and low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double-porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced-permeability areas than that obtained from the single-porosity model, mainly because of a higher permeability of the fractures in the double-porosity model. These complicated physics for stress-sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and, thus, tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to describe accurately the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight- and shale-gas reservoirs and to design production scenarios smartly.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Armero, F. 1999. Formulation and Finite Element Implementation of a Multiplicative Model of Coupled Poro-Plasticity at Finite Strains Under Fully Saturated Conditions. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 171: 205–241.
Armero, F. and Simo, J.C. 1992. A New Unconditionally Stable Fractional Step Method for Non-Linear Coupled Thermomechanical Problems. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg. 35: 737–766.
Armero, F. and Simo, J.C. 1993. A Prior Stability Estimates and Unconditionally Stable Product Formula Algorithms for Nonlinear Coupled Thermoplasticity. Int. J. Plasticity 9: 749–782.
Arthur, J.D., Bohm, B., and Layne M. 2008. Hydraulic Fracturing Considerations for Natural Gas Wells of the Marcellus Shale. Presented at the Ground Water Protection Council 2008 Annual Forum, Cincinnati, Ohio, 21–24 September.
Aziz, K. and Settari, A. 1979. Petroleum Reservoir Simulation. London: Elsevier.
Bagheri, M. and Settari, A. 2008. Modeling of Geomechanics in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (1): 108–118. SPE-93083-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93083-PA.
Bai, M. 1999. On Equivalence of Dual-Porosity Poroelastic Parameters. J. Geophys. Res. 104: 10461–10466.
Barenblatt, G.E., Zheltov, I.P., and Kochina, I.N. 1960. Basic Concepts in the Theory of Seepage of Homogeneous Liquids in Fissured Rocks. J. Appl. Math. 24 (5): 1286–1303.
Berryman, J.G. 2002. Extension of Poroelastic Analysis to Double-Porosity Materials: New Technique in Microgeomechanics. J. Eng. Mech. ASCE 128 (8): 840–847.
Borja, R.I., Sama, K.M., and Sanz, P.F. 2003. On the Numerical Integration of Three-Invariant Elastoplastic Constitutive Models. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 192: 1227–1258.
Cipolla, C.L., Lolon, E.P., Erdle, J.C. et al. 2010. Reservoir Modeling in Shale-Gas Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (4): 638–653. SPE-125530-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125530-PA.
Coussy, O. 1995. Mechanics of Porous Continua. Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons.
Dean, R.H. and Schmidt, J.H. 2008. Hydraulic Fracture Predictions With a Fully Coupled Geomechanical Reservoir Simulation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 21–24 September. SPE-116470-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116470-PA.
Dusseault, M.B., Bruno, M.S., and Barrera, J. 2001. Casing Shear: Causes, Cases, Cures. SPE Drill & Compl 16 (2): 98–107. SPE-72060-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/72060-PA.
Eseme, E., Urai, J.L., Krooss, B.M. et al. 2007. Review of Mechanical Properties of Oil Shales: Implications for Exploitation and Basin Modeling. Oil Shale 24 (2): 159–174.
Fisher, K. and Warpinski, N. 2012. Hydraulic Fracture-Height Growth: Real Data. SPE Prod & Oper 27 (1): 8–19. SPE-145949-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145949-PA.
Freeman, C.M., Moridis, G.J., and Blasingame, T.A. 2011. A Numerical Study of Microscale Flow Behavior in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems. Transp. Porous. Med. 90: 253–268.
Gutierrez, M.S. and Lewis, R.W. 2002. Coupling of Fluid and Deformation in Underground Formations. Eng. Mech-ASCE 128 (7): 779–787.
Hill, D.G. and Nelson, C.R. 2000. Gas Productive Fractured Shales: An Overview and Update. Gas TIPS 6 (3): 4–13.
Hughes, T.J.R. 2000. The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Jenkins, C.D and Boyer, C.M. 2008. Coalbed- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 60 (2): 92–99. SPE-103514-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/103514-PA.
Jha, B. and Juanes, R. 2007. A Locally Conservative Finite Element Framework for the Simulation of Coupled Flow and Reservoir Geomechanics. Acta Geotechnica 2: 139–153.
Ji, L., Settari, A., and Sullivan, R.B. 2009. A Novel Hydraulic Fracturing Model Fully Coupled With Geomechanics and Reservoir Simulation. SPE J. 14 (3): 423–430. SPE-110845-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110845-PA.
Kim, J. and Moridis, G.J. 2013. Development of the T+M Coupled Flow-Geomechanical Simulator to Describe Fracture Propagation and Coupled Flow-Thermal-Geomechanical Processes in Tight/Shale Gas Systems. Computers & Geosciences (In Press).
Kim, J., Moridis, G.J., Yang, D. et al. 2012a. Numerical Studies on Two-Way Coupled Fluid Flow and Geomechanics in Hydrate Deposits. SPE J. 17 (2): 485–501. SPE-141304-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141304-PA.
Kim, J., Sonnenthal, E., and Rutqvist, J. 2012b. Formulation and Sequential Numerical Algorithms of Coupled Fluid/Heat Flow and Geomechanics for Multiple Porosity Materials. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg. 92: 425–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nme.4340.
Kim, J., Tchelepi, H.A., and Juanes, R. 2011a. Stability and Convergence of Sequential Methods for Coupled Flow and Geomechanics: Fixed-Stress and Fixed-Strain Splits. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 200: 1591–1606.
Kim, J., Tchelepi, H.A., and Juanes, R. 2011b. Stability, Accuracy, and Efficiency of Sequential Methods for Coupled Flow and Geomechanics. SPE J. 16 (2): 249–262. SPE-119084-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119084-PA.
Lewis, R.W., Makurat, A., and Pao, W.K.S. 2003. Fully Coupled Modelling of Seabed Subsidence and Reservoir Compaction of North Sea Oil Fields. Hydrogeol. J. 11(1): 142–161.
Lewis, R.W. and Schrefler, B.A. 1998. The Finite Element Method in the Static and Dynamic Deformation and Consolidation of Porous Media, second edition. Chichester, England: Wiley.
Lewis, R.W. and Sukirman, Y. 1993a. Finite Element Modelling for Simulating the Surface Subsidence Above a Compacting Hydrocarbon Reservoir. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 18: 619–639.
Lewis, R.W. and Sukirman, Y. 1993b. Finite Element Modelling of Three-Phase Flow in Deforming Saturated Oil Reservoirs. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 17: 577–598.
McNamee, J. and Gibson, R.E. 1960a. Displacement Functions and Linear Transformations Applied to Diffusion Through Porous Elastic Media. Q.J. Mech. Appl. Math. 13: 98–111.
McNamee, J. and Gibson, R.E. 1960b. Plane Strain and Axially Symmetric Problems of the Consolidation of a Semi-Infinite Clay Stratum. Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 13: 210–227.
Nassir, M., Settari, A., and Wan, R. 2012. Prediction and Optimization of Fracturing in Tight Gas and Shale Using a Coupled Geomechanical Model of Combined Tensile and Shear Fracturing. Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152200-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152200-MS.
Nguyen, V.X. and Abousleiman, Y.N. 2010. Poromechanics Solutions to Plain Strain and Axisymmetric Mandel-Type Problems in Dual-Porosity and Dual-Permeability Medium. J. Applied Mechanics 77: 011002.1–011002.18.
Pao, W.K.S. and Lewis, R.W. 2002. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Simulation of Three-Phase Flow in a Deforming Fissured Reservoir. Comput Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 191: 2631–2659.
Pao, W.K.S., Lewis, R.W., and Masters, I. 2001. A Fully Coupled Hydro-Thermo-Poro-Mechanical Model for Black Oil Reservoir Simulation. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 25 (12): 1229–1256.
Pater, C.J. and Baisch, S. 2011. Geomechanical Study of Bowland Shale Seismicity.
Pruess, K. and Narasimhan, T.N. 1985. A Practical Method for Modeling Fluid and Heat Flow in Fractured Porous Media. SPE J. 25 (1): 14–26. SPE-10509-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10509-PA.
Pruess, K., Oldenburg, C., and Moridis, G. 1999. TOUGH2 User’s Guide, Version 2.0, Report LBNL-43134, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California.
Rutqvist, J. and Stephansson, O. 2003. The Role of Hydromechanical Coupling in Fractured Rock Engineering. Hydrogeology J. 11: 7–40.
Settari, A. and Mourits, F. 1998. A Coupled Reservoir and Geomechanical Simulation System. SPE J. 3 (3): 219–226. SPE-50939-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/50939-PA.
Sondergeld, C.H., Newsham, K., Comisky, J. et al. 2010. Petrophysical Considerations in Evaluating and Producing Shale Gas Resources. Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 23–25 February. SPE-131768-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131768-MS.
Sukirman, Y. and Lewis, R.W. 1993. A Finite Element Solution of a Fully Coupled Implicit Formulation for Reservoir Simulation. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 17 (10): 677–698.
Vermylen, J.P and Zoback, M.D. 2011. Hydraulic Fracturing, Microseismic Magnitudes, and Stress Evolution in the Barnett Shale. USA. Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 24–26 January. SPE-140507-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140507-MS.
Wang, X., Wang, L.B., and Xu, L.M. 2004. Formulation of the Return Mapping Algorithm for Elastoplastic Soil Models. Comput.Geotech. 31: 315–338.
White, A.J. and Borja, R.I. 2008. Stabilized Low-Order Finite Elements for Coupled Solid-Deformation/Fluid Diffusion and Their Application to Fault Zone Transients. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 197: 4353–4366.
Zoback, M.D. 2007. Reservoir Geomechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.