Pore-Scale Modeling of Waterflooding in Mixed-Wet-Rock Images: Effects of Initial Saturation and Wettability
- Yingfang Zhou (International Research Institute of Stavanger) | Johan Helland (International Research Institute of Stavanger) | Dimitrios G. Hatzignatiou (International Research Institute of Stavanger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 88 - 100
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 399 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
We simulate transient behavior of viscous- and capillary-dominated water invasion at mixed-wet conditions directly in scanning electron- microscope (SEM)images of Bentheim sandstone by treating the pore spaces as cross sections of straight tubes. Initial conditions are established by drainage and wettability alteration. Constant rate or differential pressure is imposed along the tube bundle. The phase pressures vary with positions along the tube length but remain unique in each cross section, consistent with 1D core-scale models. This leads to a nonlinear system of equations that are solved for the interface positions as a function of time. The cross-sectional fluid configurations are computed accurately at any capillary pressure and wetting condition by a semianalytical model that is based on free-energy minimization. The fluid conductances are estimated by newly derived explicit expressions that are shown to be in agreement with numerical computations performed directly on the cross-sectional fluid configurations. An SEM image of Bentheim sandstone is taken as input to the developed model for simulating the evolution of saturation profiles during waterfloods for different flow rates and several mixed-wet conditions, which are established with various initial water saturations and contact angles. It is demonstrated that the simulated saturation profiles depend strongly on initial water saturation at mixed-wet conditions. The saturation profiles exhibit increasingly gradual behavior in time as the contact angle, defined on the oil-wet solid surfaces, increases or the initial water saturation decreases. Front menisci associated with positive capillary pressures promote oil displacement by water, whereas for large and negative capillary pressures at small flow rates, oil displaces water because the associated front menisci retract. This results in the development of pronounced gradual saturation fronts at mixed-wet conditions. The waterfloods simulated at conditions established with a large initial water saturation and small contact angle on the oil-wet solid surfaces exhibit sharp Buckley-Leverett saturation profiles for high flow rates because the capillary pressure is small and less important. The shape of the saturation profiles is interpreted on the basis of the simulated capillary pressure curves and the corresponding fluid configurations occurring in the rock image.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Blunt, M. J., Jackson, M. D., Piri, M., et al. 2002. Detailed Physics,Predictive Capabilities and Macroscopic Consequences for Pore-Network Models of Multiphase Flow. Adv. Water Resour. 25 (8-12): 1069-1089.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00049-0.
Cassie, A. B. D. 1948. Contact Angles. Discuss. Faraday Soc. 3: 11-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/DF9480300011.
Cassie, A. B. D. and Baxter, S. 1944. Wettability of Porous Surfaces.Trans. Faraday Soc. 40: 546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/TF9444000546.
Donaldson, E. C., Thomas, R. D. and Lorenz, P. B. 1969. Wettability Determination and Its Effect on Recovery Efficiency. SPE J. 9(1): 13-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2338-PA.
Donaldson, E. C. and Thomas, R. D. 1971. Microscopic Observations of OilDisplacement in Water-Wet and Oil-Wet Systems. Paper SPE 3555 presented at the Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, New Orleans,Louisiana, 3-6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3555-MS.
Dong, M., Dullien, F. A. L., Dai, L., et al. 2005. Immiscible Displacementin the Interacting Capillary Bundle Model Part ?. Development of Interacting Capillary Bundle Model. Transport Porous Med. 59 (1): 1-18.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-004-0763-5.
Dong, M., Dullien, F. A. L., Dai, L., et al. 2006. Immiscible Displacementin the Interacting Capillary Bundle Model Part II. Application of Model and Comparison of Interacting and Non-interacting Capillary Bundle Models.Transport Porous Med. 63 (2): 289-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-005-6530-4.
Frette, O. I. and Helland, J. O. 2010. A Semi-Analytical Model for Computation of Capillary Entry Pressures and Fluid Configurations in Uniformly-Wet Pore Spaces from 2D Rock Images. Adv. Water Resour. 33 (8): 846-866. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.05.002.
Frette, O. I., Virnovsky, G. A. and Hildebrand-Habel, T. 2009. Modelling the Stability of Thin Water Films Using SEM Images. Paper SPE 121250 presented atthe EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, the Netherlands,8-11 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121250-MS.
Helland, J. O. and Skjæveland, S. M. 2006. Physically-Based Capillary Pressure Correlation for Mixed-Wet Reservoirs from a Bundle-of-Tubes Model.SPE J. 11 (2): 171-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89428-PA.
Helland, J. O. and Frette, O. I. 2010. Computation of Fluid Configurationsand Capillary Pressures in Mixed-Wet 2D Pore Spaces from Rock Images. Oral presentation given at the XVIII International Conference on Water Resources, Barcelona, Spain, 21-24 June.
Hughes, R. G. and Blunt, M. J. 2000. Pore-Scale Modeling of Rate Effects inImbibition. Transport Porous Med. 40 (3): 295-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006629019153.
Hughes, R. G. and Blunt, M. J. 2001. Pore-Scale Modeling of Multiphase Flow in Fractures and Matrix/Fracture Transfer. SPE J. 6 (2):126-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71297-PA.
Idowu, N. A. and Blunt, M. J. 2010. Pore-Scale Modeling of Rate Effects in Waterflooding, Transport Porous Med. 83 (1): 151-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-009-9468-0.
Jadhunandan, P. P. and Morrow, N. R. 1995. Effect of Wettability on Waterflood Recovery for Crude-Oil/Brine/Rock Systems. SPE Res Eng 10 (1): 40-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22597-PA.
Joekar-Niasar, V. and Hassanizadeh, S. M. 2011. Effect of Fluids Properties on Non-Equilibrium Capillarity Effects: Dynamic Pore-Network Modeling. Int.J. Multiphas. Flow. 37 (2): 198-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2010.09.007.
Kaminsky, R. and Radke, C. J. 1997. Asphaltenes, Water Films, and Wettability Reversal. SPE J. 2 (4): 485-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39087-PA.
Kennedy, H. T., Burja, E. O. and Boykin, R. S. 1955. An Investigation of the Effects of Wettability on the Recovery of Oil by Waterflooding. J. Phys.Chem.-US 59 (9): 867-869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j150531a015.
Kovscek, A. R., Wong, H. and Radke, C. J. 1993. A Pore-Level Scenario forthe Development of Mixed Wettability in Oil Reservoirs. AIChE J. 39 (6): 1072-1085. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690390616.
Kumar, M. and Fogden, A. 2010. Patterned Wettability of Oil and Water in Porous Media. Langmuir 26 (6): 4036-4047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la903478q.
Kumar, M., Fogden, A., Senden, T., et al. 2012. Investigation of Pore-Scale Mixed Wettability. SPE J. 17 (1): 20-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129974-PA.
Lago, M. and Araujo, M. 2001. Threshold Pressure in Capillaries with Polygonal Cross Section. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 243 (1):219-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.7872.
Lindquist, W. B. 2006. The Geometry of Primary Drainage. J. ColloidInterf. Sci. 296 (2): 655-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2005.09.041.
Long, J., Hyder, M. N., Huang, R. Y. M., et al. 2005. Thermodynamic Modelingof Contact Angles on Rough, Heterogeneous Surfaces. Adv. Colloid Interf.118 (1-3): 173-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2005.07.004.
Ma, S., Mason, G. and Morrow, N. R. 1996. Effect of Contact Angle on Drainage and Imbibition in Regular Polygonal Tubes. Colloid Surface A 117 (3): 273-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0927-7757(96)03702-8.
Oren, P. E., Bakke, S. and Arntzen, O. J. 1998. Extending Predictive Capabilities to Network Models. SPE J. 3 (4): 324-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/52052-PA.
Ruth, D. and Bartley, J. 2002. A Perfect Cross-Flow Model for Two Phase Flowin Porous Media. Oral presentation given at the Society of Core Analysts International Symposium, Monterey, California, 22-26 September.
Ryazanov, A. V., van Dijke, M. I. J. and Sorbie, K. S. 2009. Two-Phase Pore-Network Modelling: Existence of Oil Layers During Water Invasion.Transport Porous Med. 80 (1): 79-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-009-9345-x.
Unsal, E., Mason, G., Ruth, D. W., et al. 2007a. Co- and Counter-Current Spontaneous Imbibition into Groups of Capillary Tubes with Lateral Connections Permitting Cross-Flow. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 315 (1):200-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2007.06.070.
Unsal, E., Mason, G., Morrow, N. R., et al. 2007b. Co-Current and Counter-Current Imbibition in Independent Tubes of Non-Axisymmetric Geometry.J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 306 (1): 105-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.10.042.
Valvatne, P. H. and Blunt, M. J. 2004. Predictive Pore-Scale Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Mixed Wet Media. Water Resour. Res. 40(7): XX-XX. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002627.
Wang, J. and Dong, M. 2011. Trapping of the Non-Wetting Phase in an Interacting Triangular Tube Bundle Model. Chem. Eng. Sci. 66 (3):250-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2010.10.009.
Zhou, Y., Helland, J. O. and Hatzignatiou, D. G. 2011. A Model for Imbibition in Pore Spaces from 2D Rock Images. Oral presentation given at the International Conference on Flows and Mechanics in Natural Porous Media from Pore to Field Scale, Rueil-Malmaison, France, 16-November.
Zhou, Y., Helland, J. O. and Hatzignatiou, D. G. 2012. A Dimensionless Capillary Pressure Function for Imbibition Derived from Pore-Scale Modeling in Mixed-Wet-Rock Images. SPE J. 18 (2): 296-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154129-PA.