Four-Phase Equilibrium Calculations of Carbon Dioxide/Hydrocarbon/Water Systems With a Reduced Method
- Saeedeh Mohebbinia (University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (University of Texas at Austin) | Russell T. Johns (Pennsylvania State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- July 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 943 - 951
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 406 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Three hydrocarbon phases can coexist at equilibrium at relatively lowtemperatures in many carbon dioxide (CO2) floods. The formation ofan aqueous phase in contact with hydrocarbon phases is inevitable in almost allrecovery processes, because of the permanent presence of water in thereservoirs either as injection fluid or as initial formation water. As thenumber of phases increases, flash calculations become more difficult andtime-consuming. A possible approach to reduce the computational time of thephase equilibrium calculations is to use reduced methods. This paper presents ageneral strategy to model the phase behavior ofCO2/hydrocarbon/water systems in which four equilibrium phases occurby use of a reduced-flash approach. The speedup obtained by a reduced-flashalgorithm compared with the conventional flash approach is demonstrated for adifferent number of components and phases. The results show a significantspeedup in the Jacobian-matrix construction and in Newton-Raphson (NR)iterations by use of the reduced method when four phases are present. Thecomputational advantage of the reduced method increases rapidly with the numberof phases and components. The developed four-phase reduced-flash algorithm isused to investigate the effect of introducing water on the phase behavior oftwo west Texas oil/CO2 mixtures. The results show changes in thephase splits and saturation pressures by adding water to theseCO2/hydrocarbon systems.
|File Size||562 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Anderko, A. 1991. Phase Equilibria in Aqueous Systems From an Equation ofState Based on the Chemical Approach. Fluid Phase Equilibria 65: 89-110.
Chang, Y.B. 1990. Development and Application of an Equation of StateCompositional Simulator, PhD diss., The University of Texas at Austin, Austin,Texas.
Enick, R.M., Holder, G.D., and Mohamed, R. 1987. Four-Phase FlashEquilibrium Calculations Using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State and a MixingRule for Asymmetric Systems. SPE Res Eng 2 (4): 687-694. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14148-PA.
Enick, R.M. and Klara, S.M. 1992. Effects of CO2 Solubility inBrine on the Compositional Simulation of CO2 Floods." SPE ResEng 7 (2): 253-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20278-PA.
Fanchi, J. 1987. Effect of Complex Fluid Phase Behavior on CO2Flood Simulation. Paper SPE 16711 presented at 62nd Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 27-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16711-MS.
Firoozabadi, A. and Pan, H. 2002. Fast and Robust Algorithm forCompositional Modeling: Part I--Stability Analysis Testing. SPE J. 7 (1): 79-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77299-PA.
Gorucu, S.E. and Johns, R.T. 2013. Comparison of Reduced and ConventionalPhase Equilibrium Calculations. SPE 163577 presented at the SPE ReservoirSimulation Symposium, Woodlands, Texas, 18-20 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163577-MS.
Hendriks, E.M. and van Bergen, A.R.D. 1992. Application of a ReductionMethod to Phase Equilibria Calculations. Fluid Phase Equilibria 74: 17-34.
Huron, M.J. and Vidal, J. 1979. New Mixing Rules in Simple Equations ofState for Representing Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Strongly Non-ideal Mixtures.Fluid Phase Equilibria 3 (4): 255-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(79)80001-1.
Jensen, B.H. and Fredenslund, A. 1987. A Simplified Flash Procedure forMulticomponent Mixtures Containing Hydrocarbons and One Non-Hydrocarbon UsingTwo-Parameter Cubic Equations of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 26(10): 2129-2134.
Khan, S., Pope, G., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1992. Fluid Characterization ofThree-Phase CO2/Oil Mixtures. Paper SPE/DOE 24130 presented at the8th Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22-24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24130-MS.
Kontogeorgis, G.M., Voutsas, E.C., Yakoumis, I.V. et al. 1996. AnEquation of State for Associating Fluids. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35: 4310-4318.
Li, Z. and Firoozabadi, A. 2009. Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of Statefor Water-Containing Mixtures: Is Cross Association Necessary? AICHE J. 55 (7): 1803-1813. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.11784.
Li, Z. and Firoozabadi, A. 2010. General Strategy for Stability Testing andPhase-Split Calculations in Two and Three Phases. Paper SPE 129844 presented atthe Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24-28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129844-MS.
Li, Y. and Johns, R.T. 2006. Rapid Flash Calculations for CompositionalSimulation. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (5): 521-529. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95732-PA.
Lim, M.T., Khan, S.A., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 1992. Simulation of CarbonDioxide Flooding Using Horizontal Wells. Paper SPE 24929 presented at the 67thSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24929-MS.
Michelsen, M.L. 1982. The Isothermal Flash Problem. Part I. Stability.Fluid Phase Equilibria 9 (1): 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(82)85001-2.
Michelsen, M.L. 1986. Simplified Flash Calculations for Cubic Equations ofState. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 25 (1):184-188.
Nghiem, L.X. and Li, Y.K. 1984. Computation of Multiphase EquilibriumPhenomena With an Equation of State. Fluid Phase Equilibria 17(1): 77-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(84)80013-8.
Nghiem, L.X. and Li, Y.K. 1986. Effect of Phase Behavior on CO2Displacement Efficiency at Low Temperatures: Model Studies With an Equation ofState. SPE Res Eng 1 (4): 414-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13116-PA.
Nichita, D.V., Broseta, D., and de Hemptinne, J.C. 2006. MultiphaseEquilibrium Calculation Using Reduced Variables. Fluid Phase Equilibria 246 (1-2): 15-27.
Okuno, R. 2009. Modeling of Multiphase Behavior for Gas Flooding Simulation,PhD diss., The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Okuno, R., Johns, R.T., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2010a. Application of a ReducedMethod in Compositional Simulation. SPE J. 15 (1): 39-49.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119657-PA.
Okuno, R., Johns, R.T., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2010b. Three-Phase Flash inCompositional Simulation Using a Reduced Method. SPE J. 15(3): 689-703. http://dx.doi.org/10/2118/125226-PA.
Pan, H. and Firoozabadi, A. 1998. Complex Multiphase EquilibriumCalculations by Direct Minimization of Gibbs Free Energy by Use of SimulatedAnnealing. SPE Res Eval & Eng 1 (1): 36-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37689-PA.
Panagiotopolous, A. and Reid, R. 1985. A New Mixing Rule for Cubic Equationsof State for Highly Polar, Asymmetric Systems. Paper presented at the ACSSymposium on Equation of State-Theories and Applications, Miami, Florida, 28April-3 May.
Peng, D.Y. and Robinson, D.B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State.Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 15 (1): 59-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Peng, D.Y. and Robinson, D.B. 1980. Two- and Three-Phase EquilibriumCalculations for Coal Gasification and Related Processes. In ACS SymposiumSeries, No. 133, Thermodynamics of Aqueous Systems with IndustrialApplications, Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Pollack, N.R., Enick, R.M., Mangone, D.J. et al. 1988. Effect of an AqueousPhase on CO2/Tetradecane and CO2/Maljamar-Crude OilSystems. SPE Res Eng 3 (2): 533-541.
Rachford, H.H. Jr. and Rice, J.D. 1952. Procedure for Use of ElectronicDigital Computers in Calculating Flash Vaporization Hydrocarbon Equilibrium.J. Pet Tech 4 (10): 3, 19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/952327-PA.
Rezaveisi, M., Sepehrnoori, K., and Johns, R.T. 2013. Tie-Simplex-BasedPhase Behavior Modeling in an IMPEC Reservoir Simulator. Paper SPE 163676presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas,18-20 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163676-MS.
Shelton, J. and Yarborough, L. 1977. Multiple Phase Behavior in Porous MediaDuring CO2 or Rich-Gas Flooding. J. Pet Tech 29(9): 1171-1178. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5827-PA.
Shinta, A. and Firoozabadi, A. 1995. Equation of State Representation ofAqueous Mixtures Using an Association Model. Can J. Chem. Eng. 73 (3): 367-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450730314.
Soave, G. 1972. Equilibrium Constants From a Modified Redlich-Kwong Equationof State. Chem. Eng. Sci. 27 (6): 1197-1203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(72)80096-4.
Søreide, I., and Whitson, C.H. 1992. Peng-Robinson Predictions forHydrocarbons, CO2, N2, and H2S with Pure Waterand NaCl Brine. Fluid Phase Equilibria 77: 217-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(92)85105-H.
Stalkup, F.I. 1978. Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding: Past, Present, andOutlook for the Future. J. Pet Tech 30 (8): 1102-1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7042-PA.
Stenby, E. and Wang, P. 1993. Noniterative Phase Equilibrium Calculation inCompositional Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 26641 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3-6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26641-MS.
Voskov, D.V. and Tchelepi, H.A. 2007. Compositional Space Parameterizationfor Flow Simulation. Paper SPE 106029 presented at the SPE Reservoir SimulationSymposium, Houston, Texas, 26-28 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106029-MS.
Voskov, D.V. and Tchelepi, H.A. 2009. Compositional Space Parameterization:Theory and Application for Immiscible Displacements. SPE J. 14 (3): 431- 440. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106029-PA.
Wang, X. and Strycker, A. 2000. Evaluation of CO2 Injection withThree Hydrocarbon Phases. Paper SPE 64723 presented at the International Oiland Gas Conference and Exhibition, Beijing, China, 7-10 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/64723-MS.
Yan, W. and Stenby, E.H. 2009. The Influence of CO2 Solubility inBrine on CO2 Flooding Simulation. Paper SPE 124628 presented atAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4-7October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124628-MS.
Yan, W. and Stenby, E.H. 2010. The Influence of CO2 Solubility inBrine on Simulation of CO2 Injection Into Water Flooded Reservoirand CO2 WAG. Paper SPE 131094 presented at the EUROPEC/EAGE AnnualConference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 14-17 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131094-MS.