Pore-Scale Evaluation of Polymers Displacing Viscous Oil--Computational-Fluid-Dynamics Simulation of Micromodel Experiments
- Torsten Clemens (OMV) | Kostas Tsikouris (Icon) | Markus Buchgraber (Stanford University) | Louis M. Castanier (Stanford University) | Anthony Kovscek (Stanford University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 144 - 154
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4.3.4 Scale, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 1,088 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The recovery of viscous oil can be significantly improved by injecting polymer solutions. The processes leading to increased oil production occur on a large scale--improving vertical and areal sweep efficiency--but they begin on a microscale. Micromodels with realistic pore geometries have been created. These micromodels were saturated with viscous oil, and the displacement of the oil bywater and polymer solutionswas investigated experimentally. Polymer injection reduced fingering compared with water injection and increased sweep efficiency accordingly. The micromodel pore-network geometry was digitized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The digitized model was used to perform computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulation of the displacement processes. The displacement efficiencies and displacement patterns of the CFD simulations with water, polymer solutions, and polymer solutions after water breakthrough at the outlet end to displace oil were very similar to the results of the micromodel experiments. Then, the CFD simulations were used to investigate the displacement at the pore scale. Water injection leads to the creation of fingers along slightly more-permeable flow paths. The number and length of the fingers decrease if polymer solution is injected. Even for polymer injection after water breakthrough, the fingering is reduced, polymer solutions are diverted into less-favorable flow paths, and sweep efficiency is increased. CFD simulations can also be used to look into non-Newtonian fluid behavior at the pore scale. The polymers injected in the micromodel experiments exhibited shear-thinning behavior. On a pore scale, CFD simulations showed that the shear stress and viscosity of the polymer solutions accordingly are significantly lower in the pore throats than in the pores. Thus, the displacement efficiency of the polymer solutions is affected by the shear-thinning behavior. The CFD simulations are in remarkable agreement with the micromodel experiments and can be used to quantify the displacement processes at pore scale.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Akkutlu, I.Y., Lu, C., and Yortsos, Y.C. 2005. Insights Into In-SituCombustion by Analytical and Pore-Network Modeling. Paper SPE/CIM 97927presented at the SPE/PS-CIM/CHOA International Thermal Operations and Heavy OilSymposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1-3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97927-MS.
Bakke, S. and Oren, P.-E. 1997. 3D Pore-Scale Modeling of Sandstones andFlow Simulations in Pore Networks. SPE J. 2 (2):136-149.
Bekri, S., Laroche, C., and Vizika, O. 2005. Pore Network Models toCalculate Transport and Electrical Properties of Single or Dual-Porosity Rocks.Paper SCA2005-35 presented at the International Symposium of the Society ofCore Analysts, Toronto, Canada, 21-25 August.
Benham, A.L. and Olson, R.W. 1963. A Model Study of Viscous Fingering.SPE J. 3 (2): 138-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/513-PA.
Bilgesu, H.I., Ali, M.W., Aminian, K. et al. 2002. Computational FluidDynamics (CFD) as a Tool to Study Cutting Transport in Wellbores. Paper SPE78716 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, 23-26October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78716-MS.
Blunt, M.J. 2001. Flow in Porous Media—Pore-Network Models and MultiphaseFlow. Curr. Opinion in Coll. & Interf. Sci. 6 (3):197-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0294(01)00084-X.
Bo, Q., Zhong, T., and Liu, Q. 2003. Pore-Scale Network Modeling of RelativePermeability in Chemical Flooding. Paper SPE 84906 presented at the SPEInternational Improved Oil Recovery Conference in Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia, 20-21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84906-MS.
Borello, L., Bonuccelli, M., and Morale, G. 2007. The CFD Approach for theRisk Analysis of a Blow-Out Event. Paper SPE 108619 presented at the SPE AsiaPacific Health, Safety, and Security Environment Conference and Exhibition,Bangkok, Thailand, 10-12 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/108619-MS.
Broseta, D., Medjahed, F., Lecourtier, J. et al. 1995. PolymerAdsorption/Retention in Porous Media: Effects of Core Wettability and ResidualOil. SPE Adv. Tech. Series 3 (1): 104-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24149-PA.
Buchgraber, M., Clemens, T., Castanier, L.M. et al. 2011. A MicrovisualStudy of the Displacement of Viscous Oil by Polymer Solutions. SPE Res Eval& Eng 14 (3): 269-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122400-PA.
Burnett, D.B. 1975. Laboratory Studies of Biopolymer Injectivity BehaviorEffectiveness of Enzyme Clarification. Paper SPE 5372 presented at the SPECalifornia Regional Meeting, Ventura, California, 2-4 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5372-MS.
Cannella, W.J., Huh, C., and Seright, R.S. 1988. Prediction of XanthanRheology in Porous Media. Paper SPE 18089 presented at the Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 2-5 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18089-MS.
Cheng, J., Wei, J., Song, K. et al. 2010. Study on Remaining OilDistribution After Polymer Flooding. Paper SPE 133808 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133808-MS.
Chun, H. and Pope, G.A. 2008. Residual Oil Saturation From Polymer Floods:Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Interpretation. Paper SPE 113417presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma,20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113417-MS.
Coelho, D., Thovert, J.F., and Adler, P.M. 1997. Geometrical and TransportProperties of Random Packings of Spheres and Aspherical Particles. Phys.Rev. E 55 (2): 1959-1978. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.55.1959.
Craig, F.F. Jr. 1971. The Reservoir Engineering Aspects ofWaterflooding, Monograph Series, Richardson, Texas: SPE, USA 3.
Dake, L.P. 1978. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, No. 8.Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier ScienceBV.
Denn, M.M. 1980. Process Fluid Mechanics, 36,180. Englewood Cliffs,New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Dhaubhadel, M.N. 1996. Review: CFD Applications in the Automotive Industry.J. Fluid Eng. 118 (4): 647-654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2835492.
Dong, H.Z., Fang, S.F., Wang, D.M. et al. 2008. Review of PracticalExperience and Management by Polymer Flooding at Daqing. Paper SPE 114342presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma,20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114342-MS.
Dong, M., Foraie, J., Huang, S. et al. 2005. Analysis of ImmiscibleWater-Alternating-Gas (WAG) Injection Using Micromodel Tests. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. 44 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/05-02-01.
Doorwar, S. and Mohanty, K.K. 2011. Viscous Fingering During NonthermalHeavy Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 146841 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146841-MS.
Duda, J.L., Hong, S.A., and Klaus, E.E. 1983. Flow of Polymer Solutions inPorous Media: Inadequacy of the Capillary Model. Ind. Eng. Fundam. 22: 299-305.
Erdal, F.M., Shirazi, S.A., Shoham, O. et al. 1997. CFD Simulation ofSingle-Phase and Two-Phase Flow in Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Separators.SPE J. 2 (4): 436-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36645-PA.
Fatt, I. 1956. The Network Model of Porous Media. I. Capillary PressureCharacteristics. Pet. Trans. AIME 207:144-181.
Gogarty, W.B., Levy, G.L., and Fox, V.G. 1972. Viscoelastic Effects inPolymer Flow Through Porous Media. Paper SPE 4025 presented at the 47th AnnualFall Meeting of the SPE of AIME, San Antonio, Texas, 8-11 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4025-MS.
Hejri, S., Willhite, G.P., and Green, D.W. 1991. Development of Correlationsto Predict Biopolymer Mobility in Porous Media. SPE Res Eng 6(1): 91-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17396-PA.
Hirasaki, G.J. and Pope, G.A. 1974. Analysis of Factors Influencing Mobilityand Adsorption in the Flow of Polymer Solution Through Porous Media. SPEJ. 14 (4): 337-346. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4026-PA.
Hornbrook, J.W., Castanier, L.M., and Pettit, P.A. 1991. Observation ofFoam/Oil Interactions in a New, High-Resolution Micromodel. Paper SPE 22631presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas,6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22631-MS.
ICON FOAMpro. 2011. http://www.iconcfd.com/es/services/foampro.
Javadpour, F. and Jeje, A. 2003. Micromodel Experiments and NetworkModelling of Bubble Growth in Foamy Oil Flow. Paper 2003-024 presented at theCanadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10-12June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2003-024.
Jennings, R.R., Rogers, J.H., and West, T.J. 1971. Factors InfluencingMobility Control by Polymer Solutions. J. Pet Tech 23 (3):391-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2867-PA.
Jia, L., Ross, C.M., and Kovscek, A.R. 2007. A Pore-Network-ModelingApproach to Predict Petrophysical Properties of Diatomaceous Reservoir Rock.SPE Res Eval & Eng J. 10 (6): 597-608. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93806-PA.
Jin, G., Patzek, T.W., and Silin, D.B. 2004. Direct Prediction of theAbsolute Permeability of Unconsolidated and Consolidated Reservoir Rock. PaperSPE 90084 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Meeting and Exhibition,Houston, Texas, 26-29 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90084-MS.
Littman, W. 1988. Polymer Flooding, No 24. Amsterdam, TheNetherlands: Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier Science PublishersB.V.
Maeda, H. and Okatsu, K. 2008. EOR Using Thin Oil Film Drainage Mechanism inWater Wet Oil Reservoir. Paper SPE 116532 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oiland Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 20-22 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116532-MS.
Mostaghimi, P., Bijeljic, B., and Blunt, M.J. 2010. Simulation of Flow andDispersion on Pore-Space Images. Paper SPE 135261 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135261-MS.
Muyl, F., Dumas, L., and Herbert, V. 2004. Hybrid Method for AerodynamicShape Optimization in Automotive Industry. Computers & Fluids 33 (5): 849-858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compfluid.2003.06.007.
Needham, R.B. and Doe, P.H. 1987. Polymer Flooding Review. J. PetTech 39 (12): 1503-1507. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17140-PA.
Nordhaug, H.F., Celia, M., and Dahle, H.K. 2003. A Pore Network Model forCalculation of Interfacial Velocities. Adv. Water Resour. 26: 1061-1074. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(03)00100-3.
Nur, A. 2009. The Emerging Roles of Rock Physics: From 4D Seismic to PoreScale Imaging. Paper SPE 122944 presented at the Latin American and CaribbeanPetroleum Engineering Conference, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, 31 May-3 June.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122944-MS.
Oren, P.-E., Bakke, S., and Arntzen, O.J. 1998. Extending PredictiveCapabilities to Network Models. SPE J. 3 (4): 324-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/52052-PA.
Pentland, C.H., Tanino, Y., Iglauer, S. et al. 2010. Residual Saturation ofWater-Wet Sandstones: Experiments, Correlations, and Pore-Scale Modeling. PaperSPE 133798 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133798-MS.
Peri, S. and Rogers, B. 2007. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) ErosionStudy. Paper SPE 110463 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Anaheim, California, 11-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110463-MS.
Putz, A.G., Bazin, B., and Pedron, B.M. 1994. Commercial Polymer Injectionin the Courtenay Field, 1994 Update. Paper SPE 28601 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 25-28September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28601-MS.
Ramstad, T., Oren, P.-E., and Bakke, S. 2010. Simulation of Two-Phase Flowin Reservoir Rocks Using a Lattice Boltzmann Method. SPE J. 15(4): 917-927. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124617-PA.
Rumsey, C.L. and Ying, S.X. 2002. Prediction of High Lift: Review of PresentCFD Capability. Progress in Aerospace Sci. 38 (2): 145-180.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-0421(02)00003-9.
Seright, R.S., Fan, T., Wavrik, K. et al. 2010. New Insights Into PolymerRheology in Porous Media. Paper SPE 129200 presented at the SPE Improved OilRecovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24-28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129200-MS.
Shako, V. and Rudenko, D. 2007. Temperature Variation Across the Wellbore inSAGD Producer. Paper 2007-065-EA presented at the Canadian InternationalPetroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12-14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2007-065-EA.
Sharma, J., Inwood, S.B., and Kovscek, A.R. 2011. Experiments and Analysisof Multiscale Viscous Fingering During Forced Imbibition. Paper SPE 143946presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143946-MS.
Smith, F.W. 1970. The Behavior of Partially Hydrolyzed PolyacrylamideSolutions in Porous Media. J. Pet Tech 22 (2): 148-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2422-PA.
Sohrabi, M., Tehrani, D.H., Danesh, A. et al. 2004. Visualization of OilRecovery by Water-Alternating-Gas Injection Using High-Pressure Micromodels.SPE J. 9 (3): 290-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89000-PA.
Teeuw, D. and Hesselink, F.T. 1980. Power-Law Flow and Hydrodynamic Behaviorof Biopolymer Solutions in Porous Media. Paper SPE 8982 presented at the SPEOilfield and Geothermal Chemistry Symposium, Stanford, California, 28-30 May.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8982-MS.
Torskaya, T., Jin, G., and Torres-Verdin, C. 2007. Pore-Level Analysis ofthe Relationship Between Porosity, Irreducible Water Saturation, andPermeability of Clastic Rocks. Paper SPE 109878 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109878-MS.
Van Dijke, M.I.J., Lorentzen, M., Sohrabi, M. et al. 2010. Pore-ScaleSimulation of WAG Floods in Mixed-Wet Micromodels. SPE J. 15(1): 238-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113864-MS.
Van Meurs, P. and van der Poel, C. 1957. A Theoretical Description ofWater-Drive Processes Involving Viscous Fingering. Pet. Trans., AIME 213: 103-112.
Wassmuth, F.R., Arnold, W., Green, K. et al. 2009. Polymer Flood Applicationto Improve Heavy Oil Recovery at East Bodo. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 48 (2): 55-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-02-55.
Zaitoun, A., Bertin, H., and Lasseux, D. 1998. Two-Phase Flow PropertyModifications by Polymer Adsorption. Paper SPE 39631 presented at the SPE/DOEImproved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 19-22 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39631-MS.