Surfactant-Mediated Spontaneous Imbibition in Carbonate Rocks at Harsh Reservoir Conditions
- Peila Chen (University of Texas at Austin) | Kishore Mohanty (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- January 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 124 - 133
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.4.7 Chemical flooding methods
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 617 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The goal of this work was to pursue strategies to improve oil recovery in highly fractured carbonate reservoirs by altering the wettability from oil-wet to preferentially water-wet at high temperature (100°C or above), high salinity, and especially in high-hardness environments. Cationic surfactants and anionic surfactants were investigated for their compatibility with hard brine at a high temperature. Sequestration agents were added to improve aqueous solubility. The performance of surfactant formulations was evaluated by measuring contact angles on calcite plates and spontaneous imbibition in originally oil-wet dolomite cores. Cationic surfactants altered the wettability of oil-aged calcite plates toward a more water-wet state in the presence of hard brines; oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition from dolomite cores was 50 to 65% of original oil in place (OOIP). Anionic surfactant formulations changed the carbonate wettability to strongly water-wet only when the brine salinity and divalent-ion concentration were reduced. The wettability could be altered in hard brines if a sequestration agent [e.g., ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)] is added to anionic surfactant formulations; up to 45% of OOIP was recovered by spontaneous imbibition. EDTA provides alkalinity, saponification, chelation of divalent ions, and dissolution of dolomite, which may contribute to the increase of imbibition rate and ultimate oil recovery in fractured carbonates.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Al-Hadhrami, H.S. and Blunt, M.J. 2011. Thermally Induced WettabilityAlteration to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoir. Paper SPE 59289presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma,24-28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59289-MS.
Anderson, W.G. 1986a. Wettability Literature Survey-Part I: Rock/Oil/BrineInteractions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J. Pet.Technol. 38: 1125-1144. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Anderson, W.G. 1986b. Wettability Literature Survey-Part II: WettabilityMeasurement. J. Pet. Technol. 38: 1246-1262. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13933-PA.
Austad, T. and Milter, J. 1997. Spontaneous Imbibition of Water Into LowPermeable Chalk at Different Wettabilities Using Surfactants. Paper SPE 37236presented at the International Symposium for Oilfield Chemistry, Houston,Texas, 18-21 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37236-MS.
Barnes, J.R. and Smit, J.P. 2008. Development of Surfactants for ChemicalFlooding at Difficult Reservoir Conditions. Paper SPE 113313 presented at theSPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113313-MS.
Barnes, J.R., Dirkzwager, H., and Smit, J.R. 2010. Application of InternalOlefin Sulfonates and Other Surfactants to EOR. Part 1: Structure - PerformanceRelationships for Selection at Different Reservoir Conditions. Paper SPE 129766presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24-28 Oklahoma. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129766-MS.
Buckley, J.S. 1996. Mechanisms and Consequences of Wettability Alteration byCrude Oils. PhD thesis, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK (1996).
Buckley, J.S., Liu, Y., Xie, X., et al. 1997. Asphaltenes and Crude OilWetting—The Effect of Oil Composition. SPE J 2 (2):107-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35366-PA.
Buckley, J.S. and Liu, Y. 1998. Some Mechanisms of Crude Oil/Brine/SolidInteractions. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 20: 155-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00015-1.
Buckley, J.S. 2001. Effective Wettability of Minerals Exposed to Crude Oil.Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 6 (3): 191-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.10.1016/S1359-0294(01)00083-8.
Chen, P.L. 2011. Surfactant-Enhanced Spontaneous Imbibition Process inHighly Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. MS thesis, University of Texas at Austin(2011).
Chilingar, G.V. and Yen, T.F. 1983. Some Notes on Wettability and RelativePermeabilities of Carbonate Reservoir Rocks, II. Energy Sources 7(1): 67-75.
Craig, F.F. 1971. The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding. SPEMonograph Series, Vol 3. Dallas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Christiansen, R.L. 1990. Gasflooding Experiments for the East Side of theYates Field Unit. SPE Res Eng 5 (1): 14-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16986-PA.
Gupta, R. 2009. Surfactant Treatment of Oil-Wet Fractured CarbonateReservoirs. PhD dissertation, University of Houston (2009).
Hiorth, A., Cathles, L.M., and Madland, M.V. 2010. The Impact of Pore WaterChemistry on Carbonate Surface Charge and Oil Wettability. Transp. PorousMedia 85:1-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9543-6.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D.L. 2004. Surface Chemistry of Oil Recovery fromFractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formations. SPE J. 9 (2):151-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88365-PA.
Jadhunandan, P.P., and Morrow, N.R. 1995. Effect of Wettability onWaterflood Recovery for Crude Oil/Brine/Rock Systems. SPE Res Eng 10 (1): 40-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22597-PA.
Kumar, K., Dao, E. and Mohanty, K. K. 2008. Atomic Force Microscopy Study ofWettability Alteration by Surfactants. SPE J. 13 (2):137-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93009-PA.
Lu, J., Britton, C., Solairaj, S., et al. 2012. Novel Large-HydrophobeAlkoxy Carboxylate Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 154261presented at eighteenth SPE IOR Symposium, Tulsa, OK, 14-18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154261-MS.
Pokrovsky, O.S. and Schott, J. 2001. Kinetics and Mechanism of DolomiteDissolution in Neutral to Alkaline Solutions Revisited. Am. J. Sci. 301: 597-626. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.301.7.597.
Roehl, P.O., and Choquette, P.W. 1985. Carbonate PetroleumReservoirs. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Shahin, G.T., Moosa, R., Kharusi, B., and Chilek, G. 2006. The Physics ofSteam Injection in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs: Engineering DevelopmentOptions That Minimize Risk. Paper SPE 102186 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102186-MS.
Sharma, G. and Mohanty, K.K. 2011. Wettability Alteration in HighTemperature and High Salinity Carbonate Reservoirs. Paper SPE 147306 presentedat the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 31October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147306-MS.
Standnes, D.C. and Austad, T. 2000. Wettability Alteration in Chalk 2:Mechanism for Wettability Alteration from Oil-Wet to Water-Wet UsingSurfactants. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 28: 123-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00084-X.
Tabatabal, A., Gonzalez, M.V., Harwell, J.H. et al. 1993. ReducingSurfactant Adsorption in Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Res Eng 8 (2): 117-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24105-PA.
Tweheyo, M.T., Zhang, P., and Austad, T. 2007. Wettability Alteration andImproved Oil Recovery by Spontaneous Imbibition of Seawater Into Chalk: Impactof the Potential Determining Ions Ca2+, Mg2+, andSO42-. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 301 (1-3): 199-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.058.
Webb, K.J., C.J.J. Black, and G. Tjetland. 2005. A Laboratory StudyInvestigating Methods for Improving Oil Recovery in Carbonates. Paper SPE 10506presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar,21-23 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/10506-MS.
Zhang, R., Hu, S., Zhang, X., and Yu, W. 2007. Dissolution Kinetics ofDolomite in Water at Elevated Temperatures. Aquat. Geochem. 13(4): 309-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10498-007-9022-z.