- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Microtomographic Characterization of Dissolution-Induced Local Porosity Changes Including Fines Migration in Carbonate Rock
- Jafar Qajar (University of New South Wales) | Nicolas Francois (Australian National University) | Christoph Hermann Arns (University of New South Wales)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 545 - 562
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 469 since 2007
- Show more detail
The microstructure of carbonate rocks experiences substantial changes under reactive processes, in particular chemical dissolution and deposition, including dissolution-released-fines migration occurring during acidizing. A better understanding of such changes at the pore scale and their influences on rock properties is of great value for the effective design and implementation of reactive processes in carbonate reservoirs. In this work, we demonstrate the use of X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to quantitatively investigate the local porosity changes in a meso-/microporous carbonate core sample during chemical dissolution. A reactive flooding experiment in a core sample by a nonacidic solution is designed such that changes in pore space from before to after the reactant injection could be imaged in exactly the same locations with micro-CT at a resolution of less than 5 µm. A methodology with three-phase segmentation and 2D histograms of image intensity is used to quantify distributions of the evolution of each image voxel. This technique allows the incorporation of microporosity into the calculation of the evolution regions, including the migration of fines, to accurately quantify the evolution scenarios. The micro-CT images reveal a quasiuniform dissolution pattern and allow characterizing the accompanying migration of fines within the core sample. The 3D pore networks are derived from the image data, which quantify changes in network structure and the pore geometry. The 2D histograms of image intensity derived from the pre- and post dissolution images show quantitatively how macro- and micropores are enlarged by dissolution close to the inlet, whereas the deposition of fines mainly occurs in pores far from the inlet boundary. These results can explain why permeability of the sample initially decreases and then increases when injection time increases. Pore-surface area between each region is computed on the basis of the spatially resolved voxel evolution scenarios. This allows calculation of local distribution of reactive surface area, which, in turn, will assist in the prediction of local reaction rates in reactive flow simulators.
Algive, L., Bekri, S., Robin, M. et al. 2007. Reactive Transport:Experiments and Pore-Network Modelling. Paper SCA2007-10 presented at theInternational Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Calgary, Canada, 10-12September.
Arns, C.H., AlGhamdi, T., Arns, J.-Y. et al. 2010. Analysis ofT2-D Relaxation-Diffusion NMR Measurements for Partially SaturatedMedia at Different Field Strength. Paper SCA2010-17 presented at theInternational Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Halifax, Nova Scotia,Canada, 4-7 October.
Arns, C.H., Bauget, F., Limaye, A. et al. 2005. Pore-Scale Characterizationof Carbonates Using X-Ray Microtomography. SPE J. 10 (4):475-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90368-PA.
Bekri, S., Thovert, J.F., and Adler, P.M. 1995. Dissolution of Porous Media.Chem. Eng. Sci. 50 (17): 2765-2791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(95)00121-K.
Bernard, D. 2005. 3D Quantification of Pore Scale Geometrical Changes UsingSynchrotron Computed Microtomography. Oil & Gas Sci. Tech.-Rev. IFP 60 (5): 747-762. http://dx.doi.org/10.2516/ogst:2005053.
Bouxsein, M.L., Boyd, S.K., Christiansen, B.A. et al. 2010. Guidelines forAssessment of Bone Microstructure in Rodents Using Micro-Computed Tomography.J. Bone & Miner. Res. 25 (7): 1468-1486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.141.
Bushberg, J.T. 1994. The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging.Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins.
Cai, R., Lindquist, W.B., Um, W. et al. 2009. Tomographic Analysis ofReactive Flow Induced Pore Structure Changes in Column Experiments. Adv.Water Resour. 32 (9): 1396-1403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2009.06.006.
Caselles, V., Kimmel, R., and Sapiro, G. 1997. Geodesic Active Contours.Int. J. Comput. Vis. 22 (1): 61-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007979827043.
Daccord, G., Lietard, O., and Lenormand, R. 1993. Chemical Dissolution of aPorous Medium by a Reactive Fluid—II. Convection vs. Reaction, BehaviorDiagram. Chem. Eng. Sci. 48 (1): 179-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(93)80294-Z.
Diabira, I., Castanier, L.M., and Kovscek, A.R. 2001. Porosity andPermeability Evolution Accompanying Hot Fluid Injection into Diatomite. Pet.Sci. & Tech. 19 (9-10): 1167-1185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/LFT-100108301.
Dong, L.-J. and Yu, G. 2004. Fast Search for Thresholds from 1D and 2DHistograms by an Iterative Algorithm for Image Segmentation. In 2004 IEEEInternational Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 10-13 October 2004,The Hague, The Netherlands, 3057-3062, vol. 4.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.2004.1400808. New York: IEEE.
Fogler, H.S. and Rege, S.D. 1986. Porous Dissolution Reactors. Chem. Eng.Commun. 42 (4-6): 291-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00986448608911747.
Fredd, C.N. and Fogler, H.S. 1998a. Alternative Stimulation Fluids and TheirImpact on Carbonate Acidizing. SPE J. 3 (1): 34-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/31074-PA.
Fredd, C.N. and Fogler, H.S. 1998b. Influence of Transport and Reaction onWormhole Formation in Porous Media. AIChE J. 44 (9):1933-1949. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690440902.
Fredd, C.N. and Fogler, H.S. 1999. Optimum Conditions for Wormhole Formationin Carbonate Porous Media: Influence of Transport and Reaction. SPE J. 4 (3): 196-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56995-PA.
Gefen, S., Kiryati, N., and Nissanov, J. 2008. Atlas-Based Indexing of BrainSections via 2D to 3-D Image Registration. IEEE Trans. Biomed.Eng. 55 (1): 147-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2007.899361.
Ghous, A., Senden, T. Sok, R.M. et al. 2007. 3D Characterization ofMicroporosity in Carbonate Cores. Paper E presented at the SPWLA Middle EastRegional Symposium, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 15-19 April.
Golfier, F., Zarcone, C., Bazin, B. et al. 2002. On the Ability of aDarcy-Scale Model To Capture Wormhole Formation during the Dissolution of aPorous Medium. J. Fluid Mech., 457: 213-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112002007735.
Gouze, P. and Luquot, L. 2011. X-ray Microtomography Characterization ofPorosity, Permeability, and Reactive Surface Changes During Dissolution. J.Contam. Hydrol. 120-121: 45-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.07.004.
Gouze, P., Noiriel, C., Bruderer, C. et al. 2003. X-Ray TomographyCharacterization of Fracture Surfaces During Dissolution. Geophys. Res.Lett. 30 (5): 1267.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016755.
Hamre, B. 1998. Three-Dimensional Image Registration of Magnetic Resonance(MRI) Head Volumes. MS Thesis, University of Bergen, Bergen (1998).
Hilpert, M. and Miller, C.T. 2001. Pore-Morphology-Based Simulation ofDrainage in Totally Wetting Porous Media. Adv. Water Resour. 24 (3-4): 243-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(00)00056-7.
Hoefner, M.L. and Fogler, H.S. 1988. Pore Evolution and Channel Formationduring Flow and Reaction in Porous Media. AIChE J. 34 (1):45-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690340107.
Kang, Q.J., Lichtner, P.C., and Zhang, D.X. 2006. Lattice BoltzmannPore-Scale Model for Multicomponent Reactive Transport in Porous Media. J.Geophys. Res. 111: B05203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003951.
Kang, Q.J., Zhang, D.X., and Chen, S.Y. 2003. Simulation of Dissolution andPrecipitation in Porous Media. J. Geophys. Res. 108: 2505.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003JB002504.
Ketcham, R.A. 2005. Computational Methods for Quantitative Analysis ofThree-Dimensional Features in Geological Specimens. Geosphere 1 (1): 32-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/GES00001.1.
Knackstedt, M.A., Arns, C.H., Sok, R.M. et al. 2007. 3D Pore ScaleCharacterization of Carbonate Core: Relating Pore Types and Interconnectivityto Petrophysical and Multiplephase Flow Properties. Paper IPTC 11775 presentedat the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 4-6December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/11775-MS.
Knackstedt, M., Senden, T., Carnerup, A. et al. 2011. ImprovedCharacterization of EOR Processes in 3D. Characterizing Mineralogy,Wettability, and Residual Fluid Phases at the Pore Scale. Paper SPE 145093presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,19-21 July. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145093-MS.
Knackstedt, M.A., Sheppard, A.P., Arns, C.H. et al. 2006. QuantitativeProperties of Complex Porous Materials Calculated from X-Ray mCT Images.Proc. SPIE Developments in X-Ray Tomography V 6318: 631811.http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.679205.
Kumar, M. 2009. Multiphase Flow in Reservoir Cores Using Digital CoreAnalysis. PhD Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra (2009).
Lasaga, A.C. 1981. Rate Laws of Chemical Reactions. In Kinetics ofGeochemical Processes. Reviews in Mineralogy, ed. A.C. Lasaga and R.J.Kirkpatrick, Vol. 8, Chap. 1, 1-68. Blacksburg, Virginia: Mineralogical Societyof America.
Latham, S., Varslot, T., and Sheppard, A.P. 2008. Image Registration:Enhancing and Calibrating X-ray Micro-CT Imaging. Paper SCA2008-35 presented atthe International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 29October-2 November.
Li, L., Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Chang, F.F. et al. 2008. Reaction of SimpleOrganic Acids and Chelating Agents with Calcite. Paper IPTC 12886 presented atthe International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3-5December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/12886-MS.
Lindquist, W.B. 2002. Quantitative Analysis of Three-Dimensional X-RayTomographic Images. In Developments in X-Ray Tomography III,Proceedings of SPIE, ed. U. Bonse, Vol. 4503, 103-115. Bellingham,Washington: SPIE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.452833.
Liu, X.H., Ormond, A., Bartko, K. et al. 1997. A GeochemicalReaction-Transport Simulator for Matrix Acidizing Analysis and Design. J.Pet. Sci. & Eng. 17 (1-2): 181-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(96)00064-2.
Luquot, L. and Gouze, P. 2009. Experimental Determination of Porosity andPermeability Changes Induced by Injection of CO2 into CarbonateRocks. Chem. Geol. 265 (1-2): 148-159.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.03.028.
Nixon, M.S. and Aguado, A.S. 2008. Feature Extraction & ImageProcessing, second edition. Oxford, UK: Academic Press.
Noiriel, C., Bernard, D., Gouze, Ph. et al. 2005. Hydraulic Properties andMicrogeometry Evolution Accompanying Limestone Dissolution by Acidic Water.Oil & Gas Sci. Tech.—Rev. IFP 60 (1): 177-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.2516/ogst:2005011.
Noiriel, C., Gouze, Ph. and Bernard, D. 2004. Investigation of Porosity andPermeability Effects from Microstructure Changes during Limestone Dissolution.Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (24): L24603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021572.
Noiriel, C., Gouze, Ph., and Made, B. 2007. Time-Resolved 3DCharacterization of Flow and Dissolution Patterns in a Single Rough-WalledFracture. In Groundwater in Fractured Rocks, ed. J. Krasny and J.M.Sharp, Chap. 43, 629-642. London: Taylor & Francis Group.
Noiriel, C., Luquot, L., Made, B. et al. 2009. Changes in Reactive SurfaceArea during Limestone Dissolution: An Experimental and Modelling Study.Chem. Geol. 265 (1): 160-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.01.032.
Nur, A., Vanorio, T., and Diaz, E. 2011. Effects of Carbon Dioxide Injectionin Reactive Carbonates: Computational Rock Physics Basis for Time-LapseMonitoring. Paper SPE 149065 presented at the SPE/DGS Saudi Arabia SectionTechnical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 15-18 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149065-MS.
Ortoleva, P.J., Merino, E., Moore, C. et al. 1987. GeochemicalSelf-Organization1: Reaction-Transport Feedbacks and Modeling Approach. Am.J. Sci. 287: 979-1007. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.287.10.979.
Ramakrishnan, T.S., Ramamoorthy, R., Fordham, E. et al. 2001. A Model-BasedInterpretation Methodology for Evaluating Carbonate Reservoirs. Paper SPE 71704presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans,Louisiana, 30 September-3 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71704-MS.
Reddinger, W. 1998. CT Image Quality [Online]. OutSource, Inc. Available:http://www.e-radiography.net/merit/CT_IQ.pdf [Accessed 20 January 2012].
Rege, S.D. and Fogler, H.S. 1989. Competition among Flow, Dissolution, andPrecipitation in Porous Media. AIChE J. 35 (7): 1177-1185.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690350713.
Riseman, E.M. and Arbib, M.A. 1977. Computational Techniques in the VisualSegmentation of Static Scenes. Comput. Graphics & Image Processing 6 (3): 221-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0146-664X(77)80028-2.
Saito, T. and Toriwaki, J.-I. 1994. New Algorithms for Euclidean DistanceTransformation of an n-Dimensional Digitized Picture with Applications.Pattern Recognit. 27 (11): 1551-1565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-3203(94)90133-3.
Sakellariou, A., Senden, T.J., Sawkins, T.J. et al. 2004. An X-RayTomography Facility for Quantitative Prediction of Mechanical and TransportProperties in Geological, Biological, and Synthetic Systems. In Proceedingsof SPIE 6318, Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV, Vol. 5535,473-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.559200.
Sheppard, A.P., Arns, C.H., Sakellariou, A. et al. 2006a. QuantitativeProperties of Complex Porous Materials Calculated from X-Ray mCT Images. InProceedings of SPIE 6318, Developments in X-Ray TomographyV Vol. 631811. San Diego, California: SPIE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.679205.
Sheppard, A.P., Sok, R.M., and Averdunk, H. 2004. Techniques for ImageEnhancement and Segmentation of Tomographic Images of Porous Materials.Physica A--Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 339(1-2): 145-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physa.2004.03.057.
Sheppard, A.R., Sok, R.M., Averdunk, H. et al. 2006b. Analysis of RockMicrostructure Using High Resolution X-ray Tomography. Paper SCA2006-26presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts,Trondheim, Norway, 12-16 September.
Sok, R.M., Varslot, T., Ghous, A. et al. 2009. Pore Scale Characterizationof Carbonates at Multiple Scales: Integration of Micro-CT, BSEM, and FIBSEM.Paper SCA2009-18 presented at the International Symposium of the Society ofCore Analysts, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 27-30 September.
Sprawls, P. 1995. The Physical Principles of Medical Imaging, secondedition. Madison, Wisconsin: Medical Physics Publishing.
Steefel, C.I. and Lasaga, A.C. 1990. The Evolution of Dissolution Patterns:Permeability Change Due to Coupled Flow and Reaction. In Chemical Modelingof Aqueous Systems II, ed. D. Melchior and R.L. Bassett, ACS SymposiumSeries No. 416, Chap. 17, 212-225. Washington, DC: American ChemicalSociety.
Swift, S. 1977. A Note on Capillary Model Developments for SandstoneAcidization. Chem. Eng. Sci. 32 (3): 339-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(77)80218-2.
Vincent, L. and Soille, P. 1991. Watersheds in Digital Spaces: An EfficientAlgorithm Based on Immersion Simulations. IEEE Trans. on PatternAnalysis and Machine Intelligence 13 (6): 583-598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/34.87344.
Youssef, S., Rosenberg, E., Gland, N. et al. 2007. High-Resolution CT andPore-Network Models to Access Petrophysical Properties of Homogeneous andHeterogeneous Carbonates. Paper SPE 111427 presented at the 2007 SPE/EAGEReservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 28-31October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111427-MS.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.