Gel Dehydration by Spontaneous Imbibition of Brine from Aged Polymer Gel
- Bergit Brattekås (University of Bergen) | Åsmund Haugen (University of Bergen) | Arne Graue (University of Bergen) | Randall Seright (Petroleum Recovery Research Center of New Mexico Tech)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 122 - 134
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 403 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
This work investigates dehydration of polymer gel by capillary imbibition ofwater bound in gel into a strongly water-wet matrix. Polymer gel is a crosslinked-polymer solution of high water content, where water can leave the gel and propagate through porous media, whereas the large 3D polymer-gel structures cannot. In fractured reservoirs, polymer gel can be used for conformance control by reducing fracture conductivity. Dehydration of polymer gel by spontaneous imbibition (SI) contributes to shrinkage of the gel, which may open parts of the initially gel-filled fracture to flow and significantly reduce the pressure resistance of the gel treatment. SI of water bound in aged Cr(III)-acetate-hydrolized-polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel was observed and quantified. Oil-saturated chalk-core plugs were submerged in gel, and the rate of SI was measured. Two boundary conditions were tested: all faces open (AFO) and two-end-open oil-water (TEO-OW), where one end was in contact with the imbibing fluid (gel or brine) and the other was in contact with oil. The rate of SI was significantly slower in gel compared with brine, and was highly sensitive to the ratio of matrix volume to surface open to flow, decreasing with increasing ratios. The presence of a dehydrated gel layer on the core surface lowered the rate of imbibition; continuous loss of water to the core increased the gel layer concentration and thus the barrier to flow between thecore and fresh gel. Severe gel dehydration and shrinkage up to 99% were observed in the experiments, suggesting that gel treatments may lose efficiency over time in field applications where a potential for SI exists. The implications of gel dehydration by SI, and its relevance in field applications, are discussed for both gel and gelant field treatments.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Al-Sharji, H.H., Grattoni, C.A., Dawe, R.A., et al. 1999. Pore-Scale Studyof the Flow of Oil and Water Through Polymer Gels. PaperSPE 56738presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas,3-6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56738-MS.
Brattekås, B. 2009. EOR by Polymer Gel Extrusion through Fractures: AnExperimental Study of Water Leakoff as Function of Flow Rate, Wettability andRelative Permeability. MSc thesis, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway(2009).
Ekdale, A. A. and Bromley, R. G. 1993. Trace Fossils and Ichnofabric in theKjølby Gaard Marl, Uppermost Cretaceous, Denmark. Bull. Geol. Soc.Denmark 31: 107-119.
Dawe, R.A. and Zhang, Y. 1994. Mechanistic Study of the Selective Action ofOil and Water Penetrating into a Gel Emplaced in a Porous Medium. J. Pet.Sci. Eng. 12 (2): 113-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(94)90011-6.
Graue, A., Nesse, K., Baldwin, B.A., et al. 2002. Impact of FracturePermeability on Oil Recovery in Moderately Water-Wet Fractured ChalkReservoirs. Paper SPE 75165 presented at SPE/DOE Improved Oil RecoverySymposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 13-17 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75165-MS.
Handy, L.L. 1960. Determination of Effective Capillary Pressures for PorousMedia from Imbibition Data. Pet. Trans. AIME 219:75-80.
Hild, G.P. and Wackowski, R.K. 1999. Reservoir Polymer Gel Treatments ToImprove Miscible CO2 Flood. SPE Res Eval & Eng 2 (2): 196-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56008-PA.
Hjuler, M.L. 2007. Diagenesis of Upper Cretaceous Onshore and Offshore Chalkfrom the North Sea Area. PhD dissertation, Technical University ofDenmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark (2007).
Klein, E. and Reuschlè, T. 2003. A Model for the Mechanical Behaviour ofBentheim Sandstone in the Brittle Regime. Pure Appl. Geophys. 160 (5-6): 833-849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00012568.
Krishnan, P., Asghari, K., Willhite, G.P., et al. 2000. Dehydration andPermeability of Gels Used in In-Situ Permeability Modification Treatments.Paper SPE 59347 presented at SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa,Oklahoma, 3-5 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59347-MS.
Liu, J. and Seright, R.S. 2001. Rheology of Gels Used for ConformanceControl in Fractures. SPE J. 6 (2): 120-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/70810-PA.
Ma, S., Morrow, N.R. and Zhang, X. 1997. Generalized Scaling of SpontaneousImbibition Data for Strongly Water-Wet Systems. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 18 (3-4): 165-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(97)00020-X.
Mason, G., Fischer, H., Morrow, N.R., et al. 2009. Effect of Sample Shape onCounter-Current Spontaneous Imbibition Production vs. Time Curves. J. Pet.Sci. Eng. 66 (3-4): 83-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2008.12.035.
Portwood, J.T. 1999. Lessons Learned from Over 300 Producing Well WaterShut-off Gel Treatments. Paper SPE 52127 presented at SPEMid-Continent Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 28-31 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/52127-MS.
Portwood, J.T. 2005. The Kansas Arbuckle Formation: Performance Evaluationand Lessons Learned From More Than 200 Polymer-Gel Water-Shutoff Treatments.Paper SPE 94096 presented at SPE Productions and Operations Symposium, OklahomaCity, Oklahoma, 17-19 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94096-MS.
Riskedal, H. 2008. Wettability and Rock Characterization of HeterogeneousLimestone Utilizing NMR. MSc thesis, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway(April 2008).
Romero-Zeron, L., Manalo, F. and Kantzas, A. 2003. Characterization ofCrosslinked Gel Kinetics and Gel Strength Using NMR. Paper SPE 86548presented at SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation DamageControl, Lafayette, Louisiana, 18-20 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86548-MS.
Rousseau, D., Chauveteau, G., Renard, M., et al. 2005. Rheology andTransport in Porous media of New Water Shutoff/Conformance ControlMicrogels. Paper SPE 93254 presented at SPE International Symposium onOilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 2-4 February. http://dx.doi/org/10.2118/93254-MS.
Schutjens, P.M.T.M., Hausenblas, M., Dijkshoorn, M., et al. 1995. TheInfluence of Intergranular Microcracks on the Petrophysical Properties ofSandstone-Experiments to Quantify Effects of Core Damage. Oralpresentation given at the 1995 Society of Core Analysts Conference.
Seright, R.S. 2003. An Alternative View of Filter-cake Formation inFractures Inspired by Cr (III)-Acetate-HPAM Gel Extrusion. SPE Prod &Fac 18 (1): 65-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81829-PA.
Seright, R.S. 2001. Gel Propagation Through Fractures. SPE Prod & Fac16 (4): 225-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74602-PA.
Seright, R.S. 2006. Optimizing Disproportionate Permeability Reduction.Paper SPE 99443 presented at SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa,Oklahoma, 22-26 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99443-MS.
Seright, R.S. 1999. Polymer Gel Dehydration During Extrusion ThroughFractures. SPE Prod & Fac 14 (2): 110-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56126-PA.
Seright, R.S., Lane, R.H. and Sydansk, R.D. 2003. A Strategy for AttackingExcess Water Production. SPE Prod & Fac 18 (3):158-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84966-PA.
Sydansk, R.D. 1993. Acrylamide-Polymer/Chromium (III)-Carboxylate Gels forNear Wellbore Matrix Treatments. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1 (1): 146-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20214-PA.
Sydansk, R.D. and Southwell, G.P. 2000. More Than 12 Years of Experiencewith a Successful Conformance-Control Polymer Gel Technology. Paper SPE62561 presented at SPE/AAPG Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, California,19-23 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62561-MS.
Tipura, L. 2008. Wettability Characterization by NMR T2 Measurements inEdwards Limestone. MSc thesis, University of Bergen, Borgen, Norway(2008).
Viksund, B.G., Morrow, N.R., Ma, S., et al. 1998. Initial Water Saturationand Oil Recovery from Chalk and Sandstone by Spontaneous Imbibition.Oral presentation given at the International Symposium of Society of CoreAnalysts, The Hague, the Netherlands, 14-16 September.
Vossoughi, S. 2000. Profile Modification Using In Situ Gelation Technology-AReview. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 26 (1-4): 199-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00034-6.
White, J.L., Goddard, J.E. and Phillips, H.M. 1973. Use of Polymers toControl Water Production in Oil Wells. J. Pet. Tech. 25(2): 143-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3672-PA.
Willhite, G.P. and Pancake, R.E. 2004. Controlling Water Production UsingGelled Polymer Systems. Paper SPE 89464 presented at SPE/DOE ImprovedOil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 17-21 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89464-MS.
Witherspoon, P.A., Wang, J.S.W., Iwai, K., et al. 1980. Validity of CubicLaw for Fluid Flow in a Deformable Rock Fracture. Water Resour. Res. 16 (6): 1016-1024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR016i006p01016.
Zhang, H. and Bai, B. 2011. Preformed-Particle-Gel Transport through OpenFractures and Its Effect on Water Flow. SPE J. 16 (2):388-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129908-PA.
Zhou, X., Morrow, N.R. and Ma, S. 2000. Interrelationship of Wettability,Initial Water Saturation, Aging Time, and Oil Recovery by SpontaneousImbibition and Waterflooding. SPE J. 5 (2): 199-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62507-PA.