An Improved Three-Phase Relative Permeability and Hysteresis Model for the Simulation of a Water-Alternating-Gas Injection
- Hamidreza Shahverdi (Heriot-Watt University) | Mehran Sohrabi (Heriot-Watt University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 841 - 850
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 583 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in waterflooded reservoirs canincrease oil recovery and extend the life of these reservoirs. Reliablereservoir simulations are needed to predict the performance of WAG injectionbefore field implementation. This requires accurate sets of relativepermeability (kr) and capillary pressure (Pc) functions for each fluid phase,in a three-phase-flow regime. The WAG process also involves another majorcomplication, hysteresis, which is caused by flow reversal happening during WAGinjection. Hysteresis is one of the most important phenomena manipulating theperformance of WAG injection, and hence, it has to be carefully accountedfor.
In this study, we have benefited from the results of a series of corefloodexperiments that we have been performing since 1997 as a part of theCharacterization of Three-Phase Flow and WAG Injection JIP (joint industryproject) at Heriot-Watt University. In particular, we focus on a WAG experimentcarried out on a waterwet core to obtain three-phase relative permeabilityvalues for oil, water, and gas. The relative permeabilities exhibit significantand irreversible hysteresis for oil, water, and gas. The observed hysteresis,which is a result of the cyclic injection of water and gas during WAGinjection, is not predicted by the existing hysteresis models.
We present a new three-phase relative permeability model coupled withhysteresis effects for the modeling of the observed cycle-dependent relativepermeabilities taking place during WAG injection. The approach has beensuccessfully tested and verified with measured three-phase relativepermeability values obtained from a WAG experiment. In line with our laboratoryobservations, the new model predicts the reduction of the gas relativepermeability during consecutive water-and-gas injection cycles as well as theincrease in oil relative permeability happening in consecutive water-injectioncycles.
|File Size||941 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Akervoll, I., Talukdar, M.S., Midtlyng, S.H. et al.2000. WAG InjectionExperiments With In-Situ Saturation Measurements at Reservoir Conditions andSimulations. Paper SPE 59323 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil RecoverySymposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 3-5 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59323-MS.
Baker, L.E. 1988. Three-Phase Relative Permeability Correlations. Paper SPE17369 presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma,16-21 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17369-MS.
Blunt, M.J. 2000. An Empirical Model for Three-Phase Relative Permeability.SPE J. 5 (4): 435-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/67950-PA.
Braun, E.M. and Holland, R.F. 1995. Relative Permeability Hysteresis:Laboratory Measurements and a Conceptual Model. SPE Res Eng 10(3): 222-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28615-PA.
Egermann, P., Vizika, O., Dallet, L. et al. 2000. Hysteresis inThree-Phase Flow: Experiments, Modeling and Reservoir Simulations. Paper SPE65127 presented at the SPE European Petroleum Conference, Paris, France, 24-25October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65127-MS.
Eleri, O.O., Graue, A., and Skauge, A. 1995. Calculation of Three-PhaseRelative Permeabilities From Displacement Experiments With Measurements ofIn-Situ Saturation. Paper SCA 9509 presented at the InternationalSymposium of the Society of Core Analysts, San Francisco, California, 12-14September.
Fatemi, S.M., Sohrabi, M., Jamiolahmady, M. et al. 2011. ExperimentalInvestigation of Near-Miscible Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) InjectionPerformance in Water-Wet and Mixed-Wet Systems. Paper SPE 145191 presented atthe Offshore Europe meeting, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 6-8 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145191-MS.
Hustad, O.S. and Browning, D.J. 2010. A Fully Coupled Three-Phase Model forCapillary Pressure and Relative Permeability for Implicit CompositionalReservoir Simulation. SPE J. 15 (4): 1003-1019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125429-PA.
Hustad, O.S. and Hansen, A.G. 1995. A Consistent Correlation for Three-PhaseRelative Permeabilities and Phase Pressure Based on Three Sets of Two PhaseData. Paper presented at the 8th European IOR symposium, Vienna, Austria.
Hustad, O.S. and Holt, T. 1992. Gravity-Stable Displacement of Oil byHydrocarbon Gas After Waterflooding. Paper SPE 24116 presented at the SPE/DOEEnhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22-24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24116-MS.
Jamiolahmady, M., Danesh, A., Sohrabi, M. et al. 2007. Gas-Condensate Flowin Perforated Regions. SPE J. 12 (1): 89-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94072-PA.
Jerauld, G.R. 1997. General Three-Phase Relative Permeability Model forPrudhoe Bay. SPE Res Eng 12 (4): 255-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36178-PA.
Land, C.S. 1968. Calculation of Imbibition Relative Permeability for Two-and Three-Phase Flow From Rock Properties. SPE J. 243:149-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1942-PA.
Larsen, J.A. and Skauge, A. 1998. Methodology for Numerical Simulation WithCycle-Dependent Relative Permeabilities. SPE J. 3 (2):163-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38456-PA.
Osoba, J.S., Richardson, J.G., Kerver, J.K. et al. 1951. LaboratoryMeasurements of Relative Permeability. J. Pet Tech 3 (2):47-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/951047-G.
Schlumberger. 2011. Eclipse, Reservoir Simulator.
Shahverdi, H., Jamiolahmady, M., Sohrabi, M. et al. 2011a. Evaluation ofThree-Phase Relative Permeability Models for WAG Injection Using Water-Wet andMixed-Wet Core Flood Experiments. Paper SPE 143030 presented at the SPEEUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 23-26 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143030-MS.
Shahverdi, H., Sohrabi, M., and Jamiolahmady, M. 2011b. A New Algorithm forEstimating Three-Phase Relative Permeability From Unsteady-State CoreExperiments. Transport in Porous Media 90 (3): 911-926. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-011-9823-9.
Skauge, A. and Aarra, M. 1993. Effect of Wettability on the Oil Recovery byWAG. In Proceedings of the 7th European Symposium on Improved OilRcovery, Moscow, Vol. 2, 452-459.
Skauge, A. and Larsen, J.A. 1994. Three-Phase Relative Permeabilities andTrapped Gas Measurements Related to WAG Processes. Paper SCA-9421presented atthe SCA, Stavanger.
Sohrabi, M., Danesh, A., and Tehrani, D.H. 2005. Oil Recovery byNear-Miscible SWAG Injection. Paper SPE 94073 presented at the SPE Europec/EAGEAnnual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13-16 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94073-MS.
Sohrabi, M., Danesh, A., Tehrani, D. et al. 2008. Microscopic Mechanisms ofOil Recovery by Near-Miscible Gas Injection. Transp. Porous Media 72: 351-367.
Sohrabi, M., Tehrani, D.H., and Al-Abri, M. 2007. Performance ofNear-Miscible Gas and SWAG Injection in a Mixed-Wet Core. Paper SCA 2007-26presented at International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Calgary,Canada, 10-12 September.
Spiteri, E.J., Juanes, R., Blunt, M.J. et al. 2008. A New Model ofTrapping and Relative Permeability Hysteresis for All WettabilityCharacteristics. SPE J. 13 (3): 277-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96448-PA.
Stone, H.L. 1970. Probability Model for Estimating Three-Phase RelativePermeability. J. Pet Tech 22 (2): 214-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2116-PA.
Stone, H.L. 1973. Estimation of Three-Phase Relative Permeability andResidual Oil Data. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 12 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73-04-06-PA.
Weatherford. 2005. Sendra, Coreflood Simulator.