Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of the Three-Phase Distribution of Oil, Water, and Gas in Bentheimer Sandstone by Use of Micro-CT Imaging
- Mostafa Feali (University of New South Wales) | Wolf Pinczewski (University of New South Wales) | Yildiray Cinar (University of New South Wales) | Christoph H. Arns (University of New South Wales) | Ji-Youn Arns (University of New South Wales) | Nicolas Francois (Australian National University) | Michael L. Turner (Australian National University) | Tim Senden (Australian National University) | Mark A. Knackstedt (Digitalcore)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- December 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 706 - 711
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 593 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
It is now widely acknowledged that continuous oil-spreading films observed in 2D glass-micromodel studies for strongly water-wet three-phase oil, water, and gas systems are also present in real porous media, and they result in lower tertiary-gasflood residual oil saturations than for corresponding negative spreading systems that do not display oil-spreading behavior. However, it has not yet been possible to directly confirm the presence of continuous spreading films in real porous media in three dimensions, and little is understood of the distribution of the phases within the complex geometry and topology of actual porous media for different spreading conditions. This paper describes a study with high-resolution X-ray microtomography to image the distribution of oil, water, and gas after tertiary gasflooding to recover waterflood residual oil for two sets of fluids, one positive spreading and the other negative spreading, in strongly water-wet Bentheimer sandstone. We show that, for the positive spreading system, oil-spreading films maintain the connectivity of the oil phase down to low oil saturation. At similar oil saturation, no oil films are observed for the negative spreading system, and the oil phase is disconnected. The spatial continuity of the oil-spreading films over the imaged volume is confirmed by the computed Euler characteristic for the oil phase.
|File Size||563 KB||Number of Pages||6|
Alvarado, F.E., Grader, A.S., Karacan, O. et al. 2004. Visualization ofThree Phases in Porous Media Using Micro Computed Tomography.Petrophysics 45 (6): 490-498.
Arns, C.H., Knackstedt, M.A., Pinczewski, W.V. et al. 2001. Euler-PoincaréCharacteristics of Classes of Disordered Media. Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin.Soft Matter Phys. 63: 031112.
Blunt, M.J. 2000. An Empirical Model for Three-Phase Relative Permeability.SPE J. 5 (4): 435-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/67950-PA.
Caselles, V., Kimmel, R., and Sapiro, G. 1997. Geodesic Active Contours.Int J Comput. Vis. 22 (1): 61-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007979827043.
Chatzis, I., Kantzas, A., and Dullien, F.A.L. 1988. On the Investigation ofGravity-Assisted Inert Gas Injection Using Micromodels, Long Berea SandstoneCores, and Computer-Assisted Tomography. Paper SPE 18284 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 2-5 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18284-MS.
Fenwick, D.H. and Blunt, M.J. 1998a. Network Modeling of Three-Phase Flow inPorous Media. SPE J. 3 (1): 869-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38881-PA.
Fenwick, D.H. and Blunt, M.J. 1998b. Three-Dimensional Modeling ofThree-Phase Imbibition and Drainage. Advances in Water Resources 21 (2): 121-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(96)00037-1.
Hilpert, M. and Miller, C.T. 2001. Pore-Morphology-Based Simulation ofDrainage in Totally Wetting Porous Media. Advances in Water Resources 24 (3-4): 243-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(00)00056-7.
Jacobs, K., Seemann, R., and Mecke, K. 2000. Dynamics of Structure Formationin Thin Liquid Films: A Special Spatial Analysis. In Statistical Physics andSpatial Statistics, ed. K.R. Mecke and D. Stoyan, 72-91. Berlin: SpringerVerlag.
Kalaydjian, F.J.-M. 1992. Performance and Analysis of Three-Phase CapillaryPressure Curves for Drainage and Imbibition in Porous Media. Paper SPE 24878presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington,DC, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24878-MS.
Kalaydjian, F.J.-M., Moulu, J.C., Vizika, O. et al. 1993. Three-Phase Flowin Water-Wet Porous Media: Determination of Gas/Oil Relative PermeabilitiesUnder Various Spreading Conditions. Paper SPE 26671 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3-6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26671-MS.
Kumar, M. 2009. Multiphase Flow in Reservoir Cores Using Digital CoreAnalysis. PhD dissertation, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia(December 2009).
Kumar, M. and Fogden, A. 2009. Patterned Wettability of Oil and Water inPorous Media. Langmuir 26 (6): 4036-4047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la903478q.
Kumar, M., Senden, T., Knackstedt, M.A. et al. 2009a. Imaging of Pore ScaleDistribution of Fluids and Wettability. Petrophysics 50(4): 311-321.
Kumar, M., Senden, T.J., Sheppard, A.P. et al. 2010. Visualizing andQuantifying the Residual Phase Distribution in Core Material.Petrophysics 51 (5): 323-332.
Kumar, M., Sok, R.M., Knackstedt, M. et al. 2009b. Mapping FluidDistributions in 3D at the Pore Scale: Quantifying the Influence of Wettabilityand Saturation History on Rock Resistivity. Paper presented at the SPWLA 50thAnnual Logging Symposium. The Woodlands, Houston, Texas, 21-24 June.
Latham, S., Varslot, T., and Sheppard, A. 2008. Image Registration:Enhancing and Calibrating X-ray Micro-CT Imaging. Paper SCA2008-35 presented atthe International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 29October-2 November.
Lerdahl, T. R., Oren, P.-E. and Bakke, S. 2000. A Predictive Network Modelfor Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media. SPE-59311 presented at SPE/DOE ImprovedOil Recovery Symposium. Tulsa, Oklahoma, 3-5 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59311-MS.
Mani, V. and Mohanty, K.K. 1997. Pore-Level Network Modeling of Three-PhaseCapillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Curves. Paper SPE 38883 presentedat the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 5-8October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38883-MS.
Mecke, K. and Arns, C.H. 2005. Fluids in Porous Media: A MorphometricApproach. J. Physics Condensed Matter 17 (9):S503-S534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/17/9/014.
Øren, P.-E. 1993. Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil by Immiscible GasFlooding. PhD dissertation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney,Australia (November 1993).
Øren, P.-E. and Pinczewski, W.V. 1994. The Effect of Wettability andSpreading Coefficients on the Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil by MiscibleGasflooding. SPE Form Eval 9 (2): 149-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24881-PA.
Øren, P.-E. and Pinczewski, W.V. 1995. Fluid Distribution and Pore-ScaleDisplacement Mechanisms in Drainage Dominated Three-Phase Flow. Transport inPorous Media 20: 105-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00616927.
Pereira, G.G., Pinczewski, W.V., Chan, D.Y.C. et al. 1996. Pore-ScaleNetwork Model for Drainage-Dominated Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media.Transport in Porous Media 24 (2): 167-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00139844.
Piri, M. and Blunt, M.J. 2005. Three-Dimensional Mixed-Wet Random Pore-ScaleNetwork Modeling of Two- and Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media. II. Results.Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71: 026302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.026302.
Sakellariou, A., Senden, T.J., Sawkins, T.J. et al. 2004. An X-RayTomography Facility for Quantitative Prediction of Mechanical and TransportProperties in Geological, Biological, and Synthetic Systems. Proc SPIE 5535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.559200.
Schnaar, G. and Brusseau, M.L. 2006. Characterizing Pore-Scale Configurationof Organic Immiscible Liquid in Multiphase Systems with Synchrotron X-RayMicrotomography. Vadose Zone J. 5 (2): 641-648. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/vzj2005.0063.
Vizika, O. and Lombard, J.-M. 1996. Wettability and Spreading: Two KeyParameters in Oil Recovery with Three-Phase Gravity Drainage. SPE ResEng 11 (1): 54-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28613-PA.
Vizika, O., Rosenberg, E., and Kalaydjian, F. 1998. Study of Wettability andSpreading Impact in Three-Phase Gas Injection by Cryo-Scanning ElectronMicroscopy. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 20: 189-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00020-5.
Vogel, H.-J. 2002. Topological Characterization of Porous Media. InMorphology of Condensed Matter, ed. K.R. Mecke and D. Stoyan, LectureNotes in Physics vol 600, 75-92. Berlin: Springer Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45782-8_3.