New Approach in Permeability and Hydraulic-Flow-Unit Determination
- Mohammad Izadi (Colorado School of Mines) | Ali Ghalambor (Oil Center Research International)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- July 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 257 - 264
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 960 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Building an integrated subsurface model is one of the main goals of major oil and gas operators to guide the field-development plans. All field-data acquisitions from seismic, well logging, production, and geomechanical monitoring to enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) operations can be affected by the accurate details incorporated in the subsurface model. Therefore, building a realistic integrated subsurface model of the field and associated operations is essential for a successful implementation of such projects. Furthermore, using a more reliable model can, in turn, provide the basis in the decision-making process for control and remediation of formation damage. One of the key identifiers of the subsurface model is accurately predicting the hydraulic-flow units (HFUs). There are several models currently used in the prediction of these units on the basis of the type of data available. The predictions that used these models differ significantly because of the assumptions made in the derivations. Most of these assumptions do not adequately reflect realistic subsurface conditions, thus increasing the need for better models. A new approach has been developed in this study for predicting the petrophysical properties and improving the reservoir characterization. The Poiseuille flow equation and Darcy equation were coupled, taking into consideration the irreducible water saturation in the pore network. The porous medium was introduced as a domain containing a bundle of tortuous capillary tubes with irreducible water lining the pore wall. A series of routine and special core analysis was performed on 17 Berea sandstone samples, and the petrophysical properties were measured and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted. In building the petrophysical model, it was initially necessary to assume an ideal reservoir with 17 different layers, each layer representing one Berea sample. Afterward, by the iteration and calibration of the laboratory data, the number of HFUs was determined by use of the common HFU model and the proposed model accordingly. A comparative study shows that the new model provides a better distribution of HFUs and prediction of the petrophysical properties. The new model provides a better match with the experimental data collected than the models currently used in the prediction of such parameters. The good agreement observed for the Berea sandstone experimental data and the model predictions by use of the new permeability model shows a wider range of applicability for various reservoir conditions. In addition, the model has been applied to a series of core-analysis data on low permeability Medina sandstone, Appalachian basin, northwest Pennsylvania. The flow-unit distribution by use of the proposed model shows a better flow-zone distinction, and the permeability/porosity relationship has a higher confidence coefficient.
|File Size||714 KB||Number of Pages||8|
Abbaszadeh, M., Fujii, H., and Fujimoto, F. 1996. Permeability Prediction byHydraulic Flow Units-Theory and Applications. SPE Form Eval 2 (4): 263-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30158-PA.
Ahr, W.M. 1991. Pore Characteristics as Surrogates for Permeability inMapping Reservoir Flow Units: Vacuum San Andres Field, Lea County, New Mexico.AAPG Bull. 75 (3): 532-532.
Amabeoku, M.O., Kersey, D.G., Bin Nasser, R.H. et al. 2005. IncorporatingHydraulic Units Concepts in Saturation-Height Modeling in a Gas Field. PaperSPE 93763 presented at the 2005 SPE Asia Pacific Conference on IntegratedModeling and Asset Management, Jakarta, Indonesia, 5-7 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93763-MS.
Amabeoku, M.O., Kersey, D.G., Bin Nasser, R.H. et al. 2006. RelativePermeability Coupled Saturation-Height Models Based on Hydraulic (Flow) Unitsin a Gas Field. Paper SPE 102249 presented at the 2006 SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102249-MS.
Amaefule, J.O., Altunbay, M., Tiab, D. et al. 1993. Enhanced ReservoirDescription: Using Core and Log Data to Identify Hydraulic (Flow) Units andPredict Permeability in UnCored Interval/Wells. Paper SPE 26436 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3-6October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26436-MS.
Carman, P.C. and Kozeny, J. 1937. Fluid Flow Through Granular Beds.Trans. AICHE 15: 150-166.
Castle, J.W. and Byrnes, A.P. 1998. Petrophysics of Low-Permeability MedinaSandstone, Northwestern Pennsylvania, Appalachian Basin. The Log Analyst 39 (4): 36-46.
XCore Test Systems Inc. 2007. TPI-219 Teaching Helium Porosimeter, UserManual. Morgan Hill, California.
Davies, D.K. and Vessell, R.K. 1996. Flow Unit Characterization of a ShallowShelf Carbonate Reservoir: North Robertson Unit, West Texas. Paper SPE 35433presented at the SPE Department of Energy 10th Symposium on Improved Recovery,Tulsa, Oklahoma, 21-24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35433-MS.
XDjebbar, T. and Donaldson, E.C. 2004. Petrophysics, Theory, and Practiceof Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties, 108-109. Tulsa,Oklahoma: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Ebanks, J. 1987. Evaluation of Seals and Traps. AAPG Bull. 71 (5): 533-540.
XGrattoni, C.A., Al-Mahrooqi, S.H., Moss, A.K. et al. 2003. An ImprovedTechnique for Deriving Drainage Capillary Pressure From NMR T2 Distribution.Paper SCA 2003-25 presented at the International Symposium of the Society ofCore Analysts, Pau, France, 21-24 September.
Holtz, M.H. and Hamilton, D.S. 1996. Reservoir Characterization Methodologyto Identify Reserve Growth Potential. Paper SPE 35434 presented at the SPEDepartment of Energy 10th Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma,21-24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35434-MS.
XIzadi, M. 2009. A New Approach to Hydraulic Flow Unit Determination and ItsApplication in Prediction of Petrophysical Properties of Oil and GasReservoirs, MS thesis, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette,Louisiana.
XKozeny, J. 1927. Uber Kapillare Leitung des Wassers im Boden SitzungsBerichte. Royal Academy of Science 136: 271-306.
Lawal, K.A. and Onyekonwu, M.O. 2005. A Robust Approach to Flow UnitZonation. Paper SPE 98830 presented at the SPE 29th Annual InternationalTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Abuja, Nigeria, 1--3 August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98830-MS.
XLucia, F.J. 1999. Carbonate Reservoir Characterization. BerlinHeidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag.
Martin, A.J., Solomon, S.T., and Hartman, D.J. 1997. Characterization ofPetrophysical Flow Units in Carbonate Reservoirs. AAPG Bull. 81(5): 734-759.
Moon, M.S., Pederson, J.M., Osman, K. et al. 1998. Application ofPetrophysically Derived (Flow Facies) for Reservoir Characterization andSimulation: Wara Reservoir, Greater Burgan Field. Paper SPE 49217 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana,27-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49217-MS.
Perez, H.H., Datta-Gupta, A., and Mishra, S. 2005. The Role ofElectrofacies, Lithofacies, and Hydraulic Flow Units in Permeability Predictionfrom Well Logs: A Comparative Analysis Using Classification Trees. SPE ResEval & Eng 8 (2): 143-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84301-PA.
XSaibal, B., Byrnes, A.P., Watney, W.L. et al. 2008. Flow Unit Modeling andFine-Scale Predicted Permeability Validation in Atokan Sandstones: Norcan EastField, Kansas. AAPG Bull. 92 (6): 709-732.
Stoudt, E.L., Thomas, A.R., Ginger, E.P. et al. 1992. Geologic ReservoirCharacterization for Engineering Simulation, Hatter's Pond Field, MobileCounty, Alabama. Paper SPE 24713 presented at the SPE 67th Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24713-MS.
Swanson, B.F. 1981. A Simple Correlation Between Permeabilities and MercuryCapillary Pressures. J. Pet Tech 33 (12): 2498-2504. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8234-PA.
Tiab, D. 1993. Modern Core Analysis, Vol. I—Theory. Houston, Texas:Core Laboratories, 200 pp.
XVersluys, J. 1931. Can Absence of Edge Water Encroachment in Certain OilFields Be Ascribed to Capillarity? AAPG Bull. 15 (189):189-200.