Fluid/Rock Interactions During CO2 Sequestration in Deep Saline Carbonate Aquifers: Laboratory and Modeling Studies
- Ibrahim Mohamed (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 468 - 485
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.10.1 CO2 Capture and Sequestration, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 1,005 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in carbonate formations causes a reduction in the well injectivity caused by precipitation of the reaction products between CO2, rock, and brine. The precipitated material includes sulfate and carbonate scales. The homogeneity of the carbonate rock, in terms of mineralogy and rock structure, is an important factor that affects the behavior of permeability changes during CO2 injection.
Limestone rocks that were tested in this study included homogeneous Pink Desert limestone and Austin chalk, which were mainly calcite; heterogeneous Silurian dolomite (composed of 98 wt% carbonate minerals and 2 wt% silicate minerals); and heterogeneous Indiana limestone, which was mainly calcite and had vugs.
Experiments were conducted to compare the permeability loss between these rocks during corefloods. CO2 was injected with the water-alternating-gas (WAG) technique. Different brines were examined, including sulfate-bearing seawater and no-sulfate seawater. The experiments were run at a backpressure of 1,300 psi, a temperature of 200°F, and an injection rate of 5 cm3/min. A compositional-simulator tool (CMG-GEM) was used to predict the Carman-Kozeny and power-law exponents on the basis of the experimental results.
More damage was observed for heterogeneous rocks compared with the homogeneous cores--the source of damage to permeability for high-permeability cores is the precipitation of reaction products--but for low-permeability cores, capillary forces between CO2 and brine increase the severity of formation damage. The form of the precipitated material changes depending on the core mineralogy and permeability. The simulation study showed that for the cores tested in this study, power-law exponent and Carman-Kozeny exponent between 5 and 6 can be used for the homogeneous carbonate rock to estimate the change in permeability depending on change in porosity, whereas a larger exponent is needed for heterogeneous cores.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Aliaga, D.A., Wu, G., Sharma, M.M., et al. 1992. Barium and Calcium SulfatePrecipitation and Migration Inside Sandpacks. SPE Form Eval 7(1): 79-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19765-PA.
Bardon, C., Corlay, P., Longeron, D., et al. 1994. CO2 Huff ‘n'Puff Revives Shallow Light-Oil-Depleted Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval &Eng 9 (2): 91-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22650-PA.
Beal Jr., B.A. and Nunes, C.S. 1984. Velocity and Gravity Effects InRelative Permeability Measurements. Report submitted for MS, StanfordUniversity, Stanford, California (1984).
Bennion, D.B. and Bachu, S. 2006. Supercritical CO2 and H2S - Brine Drainageand Imbibition Relative Permeability Relationships for Intergranular Sandstoneand Carbonate Formations. Paper SPE 99326 presented at the SPE Europec/EAGEAnnual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 12-15 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99326-MS.
Bennion, D.B. and Bachu, S. 2008. Drainage and Imbibition RelativePermeability Relationships for Supercritical CO2/Brine andH2S/Brine Systems in Intergranular Sandstone, Carbonate, Shale, andAnhydrite Rocks. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (3): 487-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99326-PA.
Blum, A.E. and Stillings, L.L. 1995. Chemical Weathering of Feldspars. In:Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, eds. A.F. White and S.L.Brantley. Min. Soc. Am. Rev. Min. 31: 291-351.
Bruker S2-Ranger User's Guide. 2010. Madison, Wisconsin: BrukerCorporation.
Christensen, J.R., Stenby, E.H., and Skauge, A. 2001. Review of WAG FieldExperience. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4(2): 97-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71203-PA.
Computer Modeling Group (CMG) STARS User's Guide. 2010. Calgary, Alberta:CMG.
Delshad, M., Wheeler, M.F. and Kong, X., 2010. A Critical Assessment ofCO2 Injection Strategies in Saline Aquifers. Paper SPE 132442presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, 27-29 May.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132442-MS.
Dick, M.A., Heinz, T.J., Svoboda, C.F., et al. 2000. Optimizing theSelection of Bridging Particles for Reservoir Drilling Fluids. Paper SPE 58793presented at SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage Control,Lafayette, Louisiana, 23-24 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/58793-MS.
Dria, D.E., Pope, G.A., Sepehrnoori, K. 1993. Three-Phase Gas/Oil/BrineRelative Permeabilities Measured Under CO2 Flooding Conditions.SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (2): 143-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20184-PA.
Egermann, P., Bazin, B. and Vizika, O. 2005. An Experimental Investigationof Reaction-Transport Phenomena during CO2 Injection. Paper SPE93674 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference,Bahrain, 12-15 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93674-MS.
Eke, P.E., Naylor, M., Haszeldine, S. et al. 2011. CO2/BrineSurface Dissolution and Injection: CO2 Storage Enhancement. SPEProj Fac & Const 6 (1): 41-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124711-PA.
El-Khatib, N. 1995. Development of a Modified Capillary Pressure J-Function.Paper SPE 29890 presented at Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 11-14 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29890-MS.
Fenghour, A. and Wakeham, W.A. 1997. The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide. J.Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27 (1): 31-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.556013.
Gaus, I., Audigane, P., André, L., et al. 2008. Geochemical and SoluteTransport Modeling for CO2 Storage, What to Expect from It? Int.J. Greenh. Gas Con. 2 (4): 605-625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.02.011.
Grigg, R.B. and Svec, R.K. 2002. Improving CO2 Efficiency forRecovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs. Annual Technical Progress Report,New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, New Mexico Institute of Miningand Technology, Socorro, New Mexico (20 December 2002).
Grigg, R.B. and Svec, R.K. 2008. Injectivity Changes and CO2Retention for EOR and Sequestration Projects. Paper SPE 110760 presented atSPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110760-MS.
Gruber, N.G. 1996. Water Block Effects in Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs.J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38 (13). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-13-55.
Izgec, O., Demiral, B., Bertin, H., et al. 2006. Experimental and NumericalModeling of Direct Injection of CO2 into Carbonate. Paper SPE 100809presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio,Texas, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100809-MS.
Izgec, O., Demiral, B., Bertin, H., et al. 2008. CO2 Injectioninto Saline Carbonate Aquifer Formations I: Laboratory Investigation.Transport Porous Med. 72 (1): 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-007-9132-5.
Jimenez-Lopez, C., Romanek, C.S., and Caballero, E. 2006. Carbon IsotopeFractionation in Synthetic Magnesian Calcite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 70 (5): 1163-1171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2005.11.005.
Juanes, R., Spiteri, E.J., Orr Jr., F.M., et al. 2006. Impact of RelativePermeability Hysteresis on Geological CO2 Storage. Water Resour.Res. 42 (12): W12418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005WR004806.
Kamath, J., Nakagawa, F.M., Boyer, R.E., et al. 1998. LaboratoryInvestigation of Injectivity Losses during WAG in West Texas Dolomites. PaperSPE 39791 presented at SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference,Midland, Texas, 23-26 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39791-MS.
Kitano, Y., Tokuyama, A., and Arakaki, T. 1979. Magnesian Calcite Synthesisfrom Calcium Bicarbonate Solution Containing Magnesium and Barium Ions.Geochem. J. 13 (1): 181-185.
Krumhansl, J., Pawar, R., Grigg, R., et al. 2002. Geological Sequestrationof Carbon Dioxide in a Depleted Oil Reservoir. Paper SPE 75256 presented at theSPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 13-17 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75256-MS.
Lin, E.C. and Poole, E.S. 1991. Numerical Evaluation of Single-Slug, WAG,and Hybrid CO2 Injection Processes, Dollarhide Devonian Unit,Andrews County, Texas. SPE Res Eval & Eng 6 (4):415-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20098-PA.
Meehan, D.N. 1980. Estimating Water Viscosity at Reservoir Conditions.Petrol. Eng.:117-118.
Meijer, J.A.M. and Van Rosmalen, G.M. 1984. Solubilities andSupersaturations of Calcium Sulfate and Its Hydrates in Seawater.Desalination 51 (3): 255-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0011-9164(84)87002-2.
Mohamed, I.M., He, J., and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2011a. Carbon DioxideSequestration in Dolomite Rock. Paper IPTC-14924 presented at the InternationalPetroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 7-9 February 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/14924-MS.
Mohamed, I.M., He, J., and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2011b. Sulfate Precipitationduring CO2 Sequestration in Carbonate Rock. Paper SPE 139828presented at the SPE Projects and Facilities Challenges Conference at METS,Doha, Qatar, 13-16 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139828-MS.
Mohamed, I.M. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2012. Permeability Alternation andTrapping Mechanisms during CO2 Injection in Homogeneous LimestoneAquifers: Lab and Simulation Studies. Canadian Energy Technology andInnovation Journal 1 (1): 1-15.
Nan, Z., Chen, X., Yang, Q., et al. 2008. Structure Transition fromAragonite to Vaterite and Calcite by the Assistance of SDBS. J. ColloidInterf. Sci. 325 (2): 331-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2008.05.045.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Lynn, J.D., and Al-Dossary, K.A. 2002. Formation DamageCaused by a Water Blockage Chemical: Prevention Through Operator Supported TestPrograms. Paper SPE 73790 presented at the International Symposium andExhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 20-21 February.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73790-MS.
Pentland, C.H., El-Maghraby, R., Georgiadis, A., et al. 2011. ImmiscibleDisplacements and Capillary Trapping in CO2 Storage. EnergyProcedia 4: 4969-4976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.467.
Perrin, J-C., Krause, M., Kuo, C-W., et al. 2009. Core-Scale ExperimentalStudy of Relative Permeability Properties of CO2 and Brine inReservoir Rocks. Energy Procedia 1(1): 3515-3522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.144.
Sayegh, S.G., Krause, F.F., Girard, M., et al. 1990. Rock/Fluid Interactionsof Carbonated Brines in a Sandstone Reservoir: Pembina Cardium, Alberta,Canada. SPE Form Eval 5 (4): 399-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19392-PA.
Shariat, A., Moore, R.G., Mehta, S.A., et al. 2012. Laboratory Measurementsof CO2-H2O Interfacial Tension at HP/HT Conditions:Implications for CO2 Sequestration in Deep Aquifers. Paper CMTC150010 presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference, Orlando,Florida, 7-9 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.7122/150010-MS.
Sorensen, J.A., Holubnyak, Y.I., Hawthorne, S.B., et al. 2009. Laboratoryand Numerical Modeling of Geochemical Reactions in a Reservoir Used forCO2 Storage. Energy Procedia 1 (1): 3391-3398.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.128.
Svensson, U., and Dreybrodt, W. 1992. Dissolution Kinetics of NaturalCalcite Minerals in CO2-Water Systems Approaching CalciteEquilibrium. Chem. Geol. 100 (1): 129-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(92)90106-F.
Tahmasebi, H.A., Kharrat, R., and Masoudi, R. 2007. Prediction ofPermeability Reduction Rate due to Calcium Sulfate Scale Formation in PorousMedia. Paper SPE 105105 presented at SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show andConference, Bahrain, 11-14 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/105105-MS.
Talash, A.W. and Crawford, P.B. 1964. Rock Properties Computed from RandomPore Size Distribution.
Watts, R.J., Gehr, J.B., Wasson, J.A., et al. 1982. A Single CO2Injection Well Minitest in a Low-Permeability Carbonate Reservoir. J PetTechnol 34 (8): 1781-1788. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9430-PA.
Wellman, T.P., Grigg, R.P., McPherson, B.J., et al. 2003. Evaluation ofCO2-Brine-Reservoir Rock Interaction with Laboratory Flow Tests andReactive Transport Modeling. Paper SPE 80228 presented at the SPE InternationalSymposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, 5-7 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80228-MS.
Xu, T. and Pruess, K. 2004. Numerical Simulation of Injectivity Effects ofMineral Scaling and Clay Swelling in a Fractured Geothermal Reservoir.Trans. GRC 28: 269-276.
Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E.L., Spycher, N., et al. 2006. TOUGHREACT--A SimulationProgram for Non-Isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport inVariably Saturated Geologic Media. Comput. Geosci. 32 (2):145-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2005.06.014.
Zhang, G., Taberner, C., Cartwright, L., et al. 2011. Injection ofSupercritical CO2 into Deep Saline Carbonate Formations: Predictionsfrom Geochemical Modeling. SPE J. 16 (4): 959-967. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121272-PA.