Effect of Completion Heterogeneity in a Horizontal Well With Multiple Fractures on the Long-Term Forecast in Shale-Gas Reservoirs
- Morteza Nobakht (University of Calgary) | Raymond Ambrose (Hilcorp Energy Company) | Christopher R. Clarkson (University of Calgary) | Jerry E. Youngblood (Devon Energy) | Rod Adams (Devon Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- November 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 417 - 425
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 482 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Shale gas reservoirs have become a significant source of gas supply in NorthAmerica because of the advancement of drilling and stimulation techniquesenabling commercial development. The most popular method for exploiting shalegas reservoirs today is the use of long horizontal wells completed withmultiple-fracturing stages [multifractured horizontal wells (MFHW)]. Thestimulation process may result in biwing fractures or a complexhydraulic-fracture network. However, there is no method to differentiatebetween these two scenarios with production data analysis alone, makingaccurate forecasting difficult.
For simplicity, hydraulic fractures are often considered biwing whenanalyzing production data. A conceptual model that is often used for analyzingMFHWs is that of a homogeneous completion in which all fractures have the samelength. However, fractures of equal length are rarely if ever observed (Ambroseet al. 2011).
In this paper, production data from heterogeneous MFHWs (i.e., where allfracture lengths are not the same) is studied for reservoirs with extremely lowpermeability. First, the simplified forecasting method of Nobakht et al.(2012), developed for homogeneous completions, is extended to heterogeneouscompletions. For one specific case, the Arps' decline exponent is correlated tothe heterogeneity of the completion. It is found that, as expected, Arps'decline exponent (used after the end of linear flow) increases with theheterogeneity of the completion. Finally, it is shown that ignoring theheterogeneity of the completion can have a material effect on the long-termforecast.
We have assumed planar hydraulic-fracture geometries for our modelling inthis work and discuss the implications of this when more-complex fracturegeometries are created. This seems to be more common in shale gas reservoirs.We provide an example of low-complexity, planar fracture geometries creatednear an MFHW and observed on an image log at an offset well.
|File Size||731 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Ambrose, R.J., Clarkson, C.R., Youngblood, J.E. et al. 2011.Life-Cycle Decline Curve Estimation for Tight/Shale Reservoirs. Presented atthe SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA,24-26 January. SPE-140519-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140519-MS.
Bello, R.O. and Wattenbarger, R.A. 2009. Modelling and Analysisof Shale Gas Production with a Skin Effect. Presented at the CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 16-18 June. CIPC 2009-082. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2009-082.
Cipolla, C.L., Williams, M.J., Weng, X. et al. 2010. HydraulicFracture Monitoring to Reservoir Simulation: Maximizing Value. Presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22September. SPE-133877-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133877-MS.
Ibrahim, M. and Wattenbarger, R.A. 2006. Analysis of RateDependence in Transient Linear Flow in Tight Gas Wells. Presented at the AbuDhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 5-8November. SPE-100836-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100836-MS.
Ilk, D., Rushing, J.A., Perego, A.D. et al. 2008. Exponentialvs. Hyperbolic Decline in Tight Gas Sands--Understanding the Origin andImplications for Reserve Estimates Using Arps' Decline Curves. Presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, SPE-116731-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116731-MS.
Kupchenko, C.L., Gault, B.W., and Mattar, L. 2008. TightGas Production Performance Using Decline Curves. Presented at the CIPC/SPE GasTechnology Symposium 2008 Joint Conference, Calgary, 16-19 June. SPE-114991-MS.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114991-MS.
Larsen, L. and Hegre, T.M. 1991. Pressure-Transient Behavior ofHorizontal Wells With Finite-Conductivity Vertical Fractures. Presented at theInternational Arctic Technology Conference, Anchorage, 29-31 May. SPE-22076-MS.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22076-MS.
Mayerhofer, M.J., Lolon, E.P., Warpinski, N.R. et al. 2010.What Is Stimulated Reservoir Volume? SPE Prod & Oper 25(1): 89-98. SPE-119890-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119890-PA.
Medeiros, F., Ozkan, E., and Kazemi, H. 2008.Productivity and Drainage Area of Fracture Horizontal Wells in Tight GasReservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (5): 902-911.SPE-108110-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/108110-PA.
Nobakht, M., Mattar, L., Moghadam, S. et al. 2010. SimplifiedYet Rigorous Forecasting of Tight/Shale Gas Production in Linear Flow.Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, USA, 27-29May. SPE-133615-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133615-MS.
Nobakht, M., Mattar, L., Moghadam, S. et al. 2012. SimplifiedForecasting of Tight/Shale-Gas Production in Linear Flow. J Can PetTechnol 51 (6): 476-486. SPE-133615-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133615-PA.
Nobakht, M. and Clarkson, C.R. 2011. A New Analytical Methodfor Analyzing Production Data from Shale Gas Reservoirs Exhibiting Linear Flow:Constant Pressure Production. Presented at the North American UnconventionalGas Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 14-16 June.SPE-143989-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143989-MS.
Okuszko, K.E., Gault, B.W., and Mattar, L. 2007.Production Decline Performance of CBM Wells. Presented at the CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 12-14 June. PETSOC-2007-078. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2007-078.
Ozkan, E., Brown, M.L., Raghavan, R. et al. 2011. Comparison ofFractured-Horizontal-Well Performance in Tight Sand and Shale Reservoirs.SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (2): 248-259. SPE-121290-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121290-PA.
Raghavan, R.S., Chen, C.C., and Agarwal, B. 1997. AnAnalysis of Horizontal Wells Intercepted by Multiple Fractures. SPE J. 2 (3): 235-245. SPE-27652-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27652-PA.
Valkó, P.P. 2009. Assigning Value to Stimulation in the BarnettShale: A Simultaneous Analysis of 7000 Plus Production Histories and WellCompletion Records. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 19-21 January. SPE-119369-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119369-MS.
van Kruysdijk, C.P.J.W. and Duallert, G.M. 1989. A Boundary Element Solutionof the Transient Pressure Response of Multiply Fractured Horizontal Wells. InECMOR II—2nd European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery,Proceedings, Arles, 11-14 September, ed. P.R. King. Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University.
Wattenbarger, R.A., El-Banbi, A.H., Villegas, M.E. et al. 1998.Production Analysis of Linear Flow Into Fractured Tight Gas Wells. Presented atthe SPE Rocky Mountain Regional/Low-Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver,5-8 April. SPE-39931-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39931-MS.