Review of CO2 Flood, Springer "A" Sand, Northeast Purdy Unit, Garvin County, Oklahoma
- Michael J. Fox (Cities Service Oil and Gas Corp.) | Vishnu N. Simlote (Cities Service Oil and Gas Corp.) | Kelly L. Stark (Cities Service Oil and Gas Corp.) | L.D. Brinlee (Cities Service Oil and Gas Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 1988
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,161 - 1,167
- 1988. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.6.5 Tracers, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 3.1.2 Electric Submersible Pumps, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 3.1.1 Beam and related pumping techniques, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 3.1 Artificial Lift Systems, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 3.2.4 Acidising, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 4.1.6 Compressors, Engines and Turbines
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Summary. This paper describes the response of a CO2 flood in the Northeast Purdy Springer "A" Sand Unit in Garvin County, OK. Various aspects of field Purdy Springer "A" Sand Unit in Garvin County, OK. Various aspects of field operations are discussed, including surface handling of the CO2 production stream, measurement and treatment of produced fluids, corrosion and pump problems, effects of high CO2 production seen downhole, and solutions to problems, effects of high CO2 production seen downhole, and solutions to alleviate these problems. Several patterns in the project have received the full designed CO,) slug size of 30% of initial HCPV. On the basis of individual pattern response, operational and design changes were made to enhance the production performance of the flood area. Results of a time-lapse well-logging program are shown, along with comparisons of injection profiles taken before CO2 injection, during CO2 injection, and during Post-CO2 water injection. Production response for several wells is shown and compared. The information and operating philosophy presented is based on operating experience before 1985.
The Northeast Purdy Springer " A " sand is located in south-central Oklahoma (Fig. 1). The field was discovered in 1951 and covers 10, 160 acres [41 10 ha]. Developmental drilling was performed on 40-acre [ 16-ha] spacing. Primary producing methods were used until 1959. A waterflood was developed in three stages from 1960 through 1963 with a 160-acre [65-ha] inverted nine-spot pattern. The total cumulative oil produced through 1985 has been about 84.5 million STB [13.4 x 106 stock-tank M3], or 38% of the 225 million STB [35.8 x 106 stock-tank M3] of original oil in place (OOIP). Primary oil production is estimated at 35 million STB [5.6 x 106 stock-tank m3). Secondary-to-primary-recovery ratio has been 1.41. The initial pressure of the reservoir was 3,050 psig at 8,200 ft [21 MPa at 2500 m] subsea (ss). The pressure declined to a minimum of about 900 psig [6.2 MPa] before waterflooding. Current average reservoir pressure is about 2,400 psig [ 1 6.5 MPa]. A tertiary flood was initiated by injection of CO2 in Sept. 1982.
The Springer "A" reservoir contains Lower Pennsylvanian rocks deposited as shallow marine sediments with environmental variations. The sand is a fine- to medium-grained siliceous sandstone dipping about 8deg. [0. 14 rad] southwest. Geological studies identified four major zones according to depositional environment. The lower two zones were deposited as bar sands on a shallow marine shelf and the upper two zones are channel sand deposits. Table 1 and Fig. 2 summarize the basic properties of the Springer "A" reservoir.
Simlote and Withjack made the initial assessment Of CO2 flooding for this reservoir. Successful black-oil modeling of primary and secondary performance with a typical-pattern approach provided a basis for tertiary flood modeling. Preliminary miscible CO2 flood simulations were made with a mixing-parameter model. These showed the flood development through time and the sensitivity of tertiary recovery to CO2 slug size and water-alternating-gas (WAG) ratio.
Brinlee and Brandt presented the planning and development of the CO2 flood for this reservoir, which included reservoir evaluation and testing, drilling of an observation well, laboratory analyses, field CO2 injection tests, reservoir modeling, negotiations, and economic analyses. The development phase has involved considerable equipment design and field construction. Project life is expected to be 20 years, during which I 10 billion ft' [3.1 X 10 9 m3] Of CO2 will be injected. Of the total CO2 to be injected, 35 to 40% is expected to be recycled from tertiary producing wells. Incremental oil recovery for the project was estimated by using an average pattern reservoir description in a mixing-parameter-type simulator and scaling up the results on the basis of PV, Incremental oil production is expected to be about 16.8 MMSTB [2.7 x 10-6 stock-tank production is expected to be about 16.8 MMSTB [2.7 x 10-6 stock-tank MI] (7.5% OOIP).
Fox et al. presented the overall program of monitoring and evaluation of the CO, flood for this reservoir. The monitoring program included simulation of a specific five-spot pattern with data program included simulation of a specific five-spot pattern with data from observation-well logging, pressure-transient analyses, and sampling of produced fluids.
This paper first discusses the surface and subsurface facilities for CO2 injection and then describes the performance characteristics of the CO2-injection wells. Next, production performance in the CO,) flood area is presented for different patterns, and production well equipment and operational problems are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the facilities and approach being used in the handling of produced CO2.
Delivery and Distribution System. The source Of CO2 for the Springer project is an anhydrous ammonia fertilizer plant located near Enid, OK. The delivery system was designed for a maximum capacity of about 40 MMscf/D [1.1 X 106 Std M3/d]. The 97% pure CO2 is measured with a 6-in. [15-cm] orifice meter that is adjusted for density with a gravitometer and enters the pipeline in a su-percritical state at 1,800 psia and 90deg.F [12.4 MPa and 32deg.C). hydrate formation has been observed. The CO2 arrives at the unit at 1,200 to 1,400 psia and 70deg.F [8.3 to 9.7 MPa and 21 deg.C) and is entered into the field-distribution system without any additional compression. A total of 15.2 Bscf [430 x 10-6 std m3] Of CO2 was injected by Dec. 31, 1985, for an average rate of 12.8 MMscf/D [362 X 10-3 std m3 /d].
Measurement of the CO2 at the juncture of the pipeline and field-distribution system is performed with a turbine meter. The output from the meter, along with pressure and temperature measurements, is continuously fed to a computer that uses an equation of state to calculate CO2 rates. This measurement system has performed well and has been within 2 % of the rate measured at the Enid compression facility.
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